Skip to main content

Full text of "The library of the Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society"

See other formats


r 



// 



Palestine ^ilgdrng' ^ext §ocietg, 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS, I.-Vlll 



(lITH AND I2TH CENTURIES.) 



^ranslateb 



AUBREY STEWART, MA. 




LONDON: 

24, HANOVER SQUARE, W. 

1894. 



102 



PREFACE 



In translating the ' Anonymous Pilgrims,' I have made 
use of Tobler's text and useful notes for all except those 
marked V. (i and 2) and VI. I have also had the advan- 
tage of consulting a MS. translation by Surgeon-General 
R. F. Hutchinson, M.D., Bengal Army (retired), whose 
work has been carried out in a scholarly fashion. 

For V. (i and 2) and VI. I have used the version to be 
found in the ' Oesterreichischer Vierteljahresschrift fiir 
KathoHsche Theologie,' Vienna, 1868 and 1870, with 
notes by W. Neumann. 

None of these pilgrimages, it will be observed, are later 
than the fall of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem ; and 
though they may not yield many new facts, yet the study 
of them enables us to form a clearer notion of the state 
of the Holy Land under the Fra'nkish kings. It will be 
worth the reader's while to compare them all, especially 
I. and VII., with ' La Citez de Jherusalem.' 

AUBREY STEWART. 

London, January S, iSg4. 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM I. 

{Part early, part 1 1 th century^ 

HERE BEGIN NETH THE DESCRIPTION OF THE HOLY 

PLACES. 

L Whoso from the western parts of the world wishes to 
go to Jerusalem, let him keep his face ever toward the 
rising of the sun, and he will find the places of prayer at 
Jerusalem even as they are here set down, 

II. In Jerusalem there is a chamber^ covered with one 
single stone, wherein Solomon wrote his Book of Wisdom. 
There, too, the blood of Zacharias was shed between the 
temple and the altar. Not far from this place is the stone 
to which the Jews come every year, anoint it, lament, and 
so go wailing away. There is the house of Hezekiah, 
King of Judah, to whom the Lord granted thrice five years 
of life. There also is the house of Caiaphas, and the 
pillar to which Christ was bound, and was scourged and 
buffeted. Near the Gate of Neapolis^ is Pilate's judgment 
hall, where Christ was judged by the chief priests. Not 
far from thence is Golgotha, or the place of Calvary, where 
Christ the Son of God was crucified, where the first man 

^ Bordeaux Pilgrim, p. 21, et al. ^ Now the Damascus Gate. 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 



Adam was buried, and where Abraham offered sacrifice to 
God. About a long stone's throw from thence toward the 
west is the place where Joseph of Arimathaea buried the 
sacred body of the Lord Jesus. There is a church beautifully 
built by the Emperor Constantine. From Mount Calvary 
it is thirteen feet toward the west to the middle of the v\orld : 
on the left hand is the prison wherein Christ is said to have 
been shut up. On the right (left) hand of the sepulchre, 
and hard by it, there is a Latin monastery dedicated to 
St. Mary the Virgin, built on the place where her house 
once stood. In this same monastery there is an altar on 
the place where Mary the Lord's mother stood, and 
Mary the wife of Cleophas. and Mary Magdalen with her, 
weeping and grieving because they saw the Lord upon the 
cross. Here Jesus said to His mother, ' Woman, behold 
thy son,' and to the disciple, ' Behold thy mother.' Two 
bow-shots from this place toward the east is the Lord's 
temple, which was built by Solomon, and wherein Christ 
was presented by the just Simeon. On the right-hand side 
of this temple Solomon built his own temple, and between 
the two temples he built a beauteous portico with marble 
columns. To the left is the sheep-pool. 

HI. About a mile from thence to the eastward may be 
seen the Mount of Olives, where the Lord Jesus prayed to 
His Father, saying, ' Father, if it be possible,' etc., and 
wrote the Lord's Prayer on a stone, and whence He 
ascended to heaven, saying to His disciples, 'Go, teach all 
nations,' etc. Between the Lord's temple and the Mount 
of Olives is the Valley of Jehoshaphat, where the Virgin 
Mary was buried by the Apostles, and in which valley the 
Lord shall judge the world. Near to it is the village called 
Gethsemane. and there, hard by, beyond the brook Cedron, 
is the garden where Judas betrayed the Lord Jesus. Near 
that place is the sepulchre of the prophet Isaiah. A mile 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM I. 3 

from thence is Bethany, where the Lord raised up Lazarus 

after he had been dead four days. In the same quarter, 

some thirteen or eighteen miles on the way to Jericho, is 

the sycamore-tree into which Zacchacus climbed that he 

might see the Lord Jesus. On another side, one mile 

distant from Jericho, is Elisha's Fountain, which he blessed 

and sprinkled with salt. Five miles from thence is the 

river Jordan, wherein the Lord was baptized, being eight 

leagues distant from Jerusalem. Not far from thence is 

the mount from which Elijah was caught up into heaven. 

IV. From the Jordan it is an eight days' journey to 

Mount Sinai, where the Lord appeared to Moses in the 

burning bush and gave him the law. At this place there is 

a great water-pot,^ which unceasingly runs with oil. Three 

1 Hydria. The legend appears in Thietmar in a confused fashion. 
In ch. viii. he says Desiderio autem desiderans desiderantissime corpus 
beate Katerine, sacro sudans oleo, visitare, etc In ch. xxiii. he gives 
an account of how the monks proposed to leave St. Catharine's 
Convent, because there was no oil to feed the lamps, but were recalled 
by the Virgin Mary, who appeared to them saying, ' Redite, quia 
hydriam, in qua oleum deponere consuevistis, invenieiis oleo inde- 
ficiente repletam. Nunquam enim oleum ab ilia hydria videbitis 
defecisse. Redierunt ergo et juxtaverbum domine nostre ydriam 
oleo fecundam jugiter invenerunt. Hanc igitur ydriam vidi, et de 
ejus oleo habui, et in magna veneracione habetur.' Tobler quotes 
the following passage from Peter Tudebove : 'Jordanis a flumine est 
via decern et octo dierum usque in montem Sinai, ubi Christus 
Dominus Moysi in igne rubi apparuit, et ei legem dedit : et ibi est 
hydria magna in monasterio, quae non deficiens oleum parturit ' 
(P. Tudebove, p. 414, ed. De Vogii^). This agrees almost word for 
word with our anonymous pilgrim. We read in Fabri, vol. ii., p. 551, 
that the monks of Sinai made up their minds to leave the place, 
and were recalled by a miraculous apparition of the Virgin, but 
Brother Nicodemus, who told Fabri the legend, had a different version 
to that of Thietmar, for he said that the cause of their proposed 
abandonment of the place was the enormous increase of serpents, 
vipers, toads, and other venomous creatures therein, and that the 
Virgin, in testimony of the truth of her appearance to them, caused a 
spring of water to burst forth from the hard rock, and also cleared 
away all the reptiles, etc. Not a word about oil in this story : yet we 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 



days' journey distant from Jerusalem is Mount Tabor, 
whereon the Lord was transfigured. At the foot of this 
mountain is said to be Galilee and the Sea of Tiberias, 
which is not a sea, but a lake out of which the Jordan flows. 

V. On the right-hand side of the city of Jerusalem, 
about a bow-shot distant, is Mount Sion, whereon is a 
church built by Solomon. Here the Lord Jesus supped 
with His disciples, and here also He sent down upon them 
the Holy Ghost. Here also the Virgin Mary passed away 
from this world and yielded up her spirit. The Apostles 
bore her most sacred body from hence into the Valley of 
Jehoshaphat. At the foot of this mount the Fountain of 
Siloam bursts abruptly forth from the ground. 

VL Not far from thence is Sichem, where Joseph sought 
for his brethren when he came from the Vale of Hebron. 
There is the land which Jacob gave to Joseph his son, and 
there his body rests. A mile from thence is Sichar, where 
the Lord talked with the woman of Samaria. Not far from 
thence is the place where Jacob wrestled with the angel. 

Vn. Four miles distant from Jerusalem, to the south- 
ward, is Bethlehem, the city of David, where Christ was 
born. At Bethlehem there is a church built with pillars of 
marble, wherein is the place where Christ was born. Not 

read (Fabri, vol. ii., p. 606) that St. Catharine's body was found in a 
niche of rock which was full of oil ; and (p. 6ot) Fabri says : *The 
sacred bones seem to have lain in oil, because they are not white, but 
are of the colour which a bone or piece of wood contracts by lying in 
oil. It is the belief of Holy Church that the virgin's limbs once 
sweated forth oil ; but this miracle has now ceased for a long while, 
and the holy limbs are swathed in silk, pieces of which are given to 
the pilgrims instead of oil. They soak these pieces of silk in the 
lamps which hang in the chapel of St. Mary at Bush, and so take 
them home as St. Catharine's oil' In Thietmar, ch. xxvii., we find : 
•episcopus accessit ad sarcophagum beate Katrine. Quo aperto, 
dedit mihi de oleo ejusdem virginis.' Thietmar was at Sinai A.D. 12 17. 
Compare Ernoul, p. 55, Sir John Maundeville's account of Mount 
Sinai, ch. v., and also Fabri, vol. i., part 2, p. 565, in this series. 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM II. 5 

far from hence, on the right hand, is the Lord's manger. 
Twelve miles from thence is Abraham's castle, which is 
called Thocor,^ where Abraham himself, Isaac, and Jacob 
are buried together with their wives. On the left is the mount 
called Dominus vidit, where the Lord talked with Abraham, 
and where Abraham would have sacrificed his son Isaac. 

ANONYMOUS PILGRIM II. 

{\2th century.) 
I. Those who go by the upper way from Accaron -^ to the 
Holy City come to the city of Nazareth. Two leagues 
from thence is Mount Tabor, where Christ was transfigured. 
Near this same place is the city of Tiberias, by which is 
the Sea of Galilee, where the Lord wrought many miracles. 
About two leagues above it is the ' Table,' ^ where the 
Lord satisfied five thousand men with five loaves and two 
fishes. Next comes the city of Sebaste, to be revered 
because of the relics of St. John the Baptist. From hence 
one goes to the well whereon the Lord sat when He talked 
with the woman of Samaria. 

II. Thence one goes into the Holy City, and first into 
St. Stephen's Church, on the place where he was stoned, 
Thence one goes into the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, 
and first to the place of Calvary, where Christ suffered, 
where pilgrims, after they have worshipped Him crucified, 
cast down their crosses on the earth again in token that 

^ Tekoa. Probably a copyist's error. The castle was at Hebron. 

^ Acre. See Tobler's note to Theoderich, ch. xlvii., where he warns 
his readers not to confuse Accon, near Nazareth, with Accaron, the 
Old Testament Ekron, and quotes Thietmar's couplet, Non est urbs 
Accaron quam quilibet aestirnat Achon : ilia Philistaea^ Ptolemaida 
dicitur ista. But these names seem soon to have been confused, for 
Accaron here is clearly Acre, as it is in Theoderich, ch. li. ; cf Poloner, 
De civitatibiis et locis Terrae Sanctae, etc. 

■^ See Anon, vi., p. 54, and Tobler's note on Theoderich, ch. xlv. 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 



they have accomplished their vow.^ From hence one goes 
to Golgotha, where the Lord's blood flowed down and the 
rock was rent. Thence one goes to an altar which is 
believed to rest upon a piece of the column to which 
Christ was bound and scourged. There, down a descent 
close by, is the place where the holy cross was found, 
which is in a crypt beneath an overhanging rock. The 
altar in the middle is dedicated to St. Helena, and that 
on the left to St. Quiriacus, whose name was also Judas, 
who showed the cross to the dead man, and, on seeing the 
miracle of his being brought to life again, was converted, 
and was made Bishop of Jerusalem. In the midst of the 
canons' choir there is a place which deserves especial 
reverence, for that Christ, after He was taken down from the 
cross, was laid there before He was borne to the sepulchre. 
Here a light is always kept burning. The high altar is 
dedicated to St. Mary. After this one goes to the holy 
sepulchre. This has an altar on the south (north side), 
and a fair church dedicated to the Holy Cross, wherein 
the holy cross is kept. Near this is another church, which 
belongs to the Syrians, wherein they also keep a holy 
cross. Almost at the end of the church, on the south 
(north) side, is the place which is called ' the Prison,' where 
Christ was shut up while the gallows or cross was being 
made ready on the mount. Beneath the five columns of 
the church are buried the Forty Martyrs, whom we know 
by their feast being held on the Sth^ of March. Near the 

^ The text has Udi tanquam voti compotes, adorato crucifixo, crtices 
scilicet tres quasi reconsignant. By reading terrae instead of tres the 
sentence becomes intelligible. We learn from Theoderich (ch. xii.) 
that pilgrims started from their homes bearing crosses in their hands ; 
that after they had reached the Church of the Holy Sepulchre these 
crosses were placed on the rock of Mount Calvary, and that they were 
burned every year on Easter Even. 

2 The Roman Calendar has, however, 'vii. Idus Mart. (March 9). 
Bosa, Ep. et Conf., Quadraginta Milite=, M.M.' 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM II. 



place of Calvary there is a place the door into which 
is closed. In it Jerome says that Adam was buried. 
Some also say that Adam received (from the cross) in his 
mouth the drops of blood which ran down, and was thereby 
raised from the dead.^ There are three little chapels 
adjoining the church on the south side, whereof that which 
is nearest to the church is dedicated to the Holy Trinity,' 
and the furthest one, wliich looks into the street, is 
dedicated to St. James the Great. It is said that the 
Lord sat in the place where the middle altar is, and that 
St. John sat on His right hand and St. James on His left, 
what time their mother begged that they might sit one on 
His right hand and one on His left in His kingdom. It is 
also said that St. John stood on the spot where his altar is 
when Christ commended His mother to Him. The most 
blessed Virgin herself stood watching her Son's Passion 
on the spot where now is 'the high altar of the church. 
Without the great church, by the side of Calvary, there is 
a little chapel dedicated to Mary Magdalen, on the place 
where the three Marys stood at the time of the Passion. 

III. The Church of St. John the Baptist stands almost 
opposite, facing the great church, and is worthy of honour 
both because of its most holy relics and its exceeding 
famous charities. There one may see that there are six 
(? seven) 2 works of mercy to be performed. Near it is the 
Church of St. Mary the Latin, which is notable for its 
antiquity and for the honour due to its relics. Therein is 
St. Philip's head and some of St. Mary's hair. 

^ See Theoderich, pp. lo and 20, and Smith s Dictionary of the 
Bible, s.v. * Golgotha.' 

* The official Catechism of the Roman Catholic Church reckons 
seven 'corporal works of mercy,' as follows ; i. To feed the hungry ; 
2. To give drink to the thirsty ; 3. To clothe the naked ; 4. To 
harbour the harbourless ; 5. To visit the sick; 6. To visit the 
imprisoned; 7. To bury the dead. Matf. xxv. 35, 36; cf Tobit, xii. 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 



IV. On Mount Sion is the place where the Holy Ghost 
appeared on the Apostles in fiery tongues and enlightened 
their hearts. There (Christ) washed the disciples' feet 
and let Thomas feel His side. There also Christ supped. 
There is the very table whereon He supped. Before 
the door is the place which is called the 'Place of the 
Holy Ghost.' On the south side is the place which is 
called Galilee,^ where He said : * I will go before you into 
Galilee.' Over against this, on the north side, is the place 
where the blessed Mary departed from this world. At the 
end of this side, toward the east, there is an altar beneath 
which St. Stephen, 2 Gamaliel, Abybas, and Nicodemus 
are buried. Without the churchyard, on the north, there 
is a church dedicated to St. Peter, on the place where the 
judgment'hall is said tp have been. Without the city 
there is a church which is called ' the Church of St. Peter 
at the Cock-crowing,' on the place where, after his third 
denial and the crowing of the cock, he hid himself and 
wept bitterly. Within the walls also there is a church 
of *St. Peter of the Fetters,' at the place where Herod 
kept him bound with two chains. 

V. As one comes back to the Lord's temple, the first 
place with which one meets is that of the holy Presenta- 
tion. Hard by it is the place where Jacob slept and saw 
the ladder, and wrestled with the angel, and set up a stone 
for a pillar.^ Beneath the choir, on the south side, there is 
a crypt hewn out of the rock, which is called the ' Place 
of Confession,' because it was there that Christ met the 
woman to whom He said : ' No man hath condemned thee/ 
etc. At the head of the temple is St. James's Chapel, 

1 See FabrJ, vol. i., part 2, pp. 481, 482 ; Fetellus, p. 4, in this series. 

2 Fabri, i. 310. See the note ' Stephen ' in Smiih's Dictionary of the 
Bible. 

^ Fabri, vol ii., p. 145, note ; Theod.^ ch. xv. ; John of Wiirzburg, 
ch. X. 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM 11. 



which stands on the place where he was cast down and 
slain with a fuller's club. This James, the son of Alphacus, 
was the first Bishop of Jerusalem. Not far off are shown 
the Golden Gates, through which the Lord entered Jeru- 
salem when He came from the Mount of Olives riding 
upon an ass, while the children cried out : * Hosanna to 
the Son of David !' These gates are only opened on Palm 
Sunday and on the day o( the Exaltation of the Holy Cross. 
Next one sees the spot where is the cradle^ and the bath 
and Simeon's tomb, at the place where Christ Himself is 
said to have dwelt with Simeon for a year and a half 

VI. Near the city gate, looking into the Valley of 
Jehoshaphat, is the Church of St. Anne, the mother of St. 
Mary, whom she bore and nursed while dwelling there. 
Near it is the sheep-pool, which has five arches. This is 
the place where the wood of the cross long furnished a 
passage to those who went to the pool, albeit the Templars 
show another pdol which they say is the sheep-pool. 
From thence one goes into the Valley of Jehoshaphat, 
where is St. Mary's sepulchre. There, just before the door 
of the monastery, is the place called Gethsemane, where 
Judas betrayed him. There is the rock which is said to 
have yielded to the pressure of his fingers.^ In this same 
chapel there are four separate places, where He found His 
disciples sleeping, three in each place. Without the 
churchyard,^ about a bow-shot distant, there is a church 
dedicated to the Saviour, built on the place where He 
thrice prayed and His bloody sweat dropped from Him. 
Near the Convent of Jehoshaphat runs the brook Cedron. 

1 See Anon. vii. and * The City of Jerusalem' in this series, ch. xiv., 
p. 15 ; Fetellus, p. 3, note 4. 

2 See pos/, p. 25 ; Fabri i. 476 ; also Tobler's note, in his edition of 
Theoderich, p. 245. ' Theoderich,' by T. Tobler, St. Gall and Paris, 1865. 

•3 Atrium : properly the enclosed courtyard before the church door, 
as at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. 



lo ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 

V. 

There also, in the place where the hermits dwell,^ there is a 
church dedicated to St. James. At the end of the Valley 
of Jehoshaphat is Aceldama, the field which was bought 
with the thirty pieces of silver to bury strangers in ; for 
no one is denied burial therein. 

VII. As pilgrims go up the Mount of Olives they first 
come to the church which is called the Church of the Pater- 
noster, because it stands where Christ taught His disciples the 
Lord's Prayer. There is a stone beneath the altar whereon 
He Himself wrote the Lord's prayer with His finger. Next 
comes the Church of St. Pelagia^ the virgin. The Place of 
the Ascension is to be seen in the church which is built on 
the top of the mount. Close by it is Bethphage. From 
thence one goes to Bethamy. From Bethamy one goes to 
the Jordan, and first to Jericho, where is the garden of 
Abraham.^ Here flows the stream from the fountain of 
Elia(s) ... in the place where there were twelve wells 
and seventy palm-trees. To the left as one comes thither 
there is a place fortified^ by religious persons, which place 

^ ' The City of Jerusalem,' ch. xxiv. ; Poloner, p. 238, in Tobler's 
' Descriptiones Terrae Sanctae.' 

'■^ See Antoninus, ch. xvi, ; Theoderich, Tobler's edition, note, pp. 
245, 247 ; Anon. Pilgrim v., i, p. 25 ; vii., p. y^ ; and Fabri, i. 499, in 
this series. 

^ Abraham's garden. Tobler refers the reader to Theoderich, ch. 
xxviii., where in his note I find references to his ' Topographie ' (vol. ii., 
PP- 559? 573)j to Werlauf's ' Symbolae ad Geographiam (campi 
Abrahami, 31), to Anon, ii., ch. 7, iv., ch. 8, and vii.,yf;?. ; and to the 
French Anonymous Pilgrim quoted in his 'Topographic,' ii. 1002, and 
to Odoricus (ed. Laurent), p. 156. See also his note to Innom. vii. 
(in ' Descriptiones Terrae Sanctae,' Leipsic, 1874), p. 413, where he 
remarks that this garden of Abraham was, in the time of the 
Crusaders, still a palm-grove, and seems to have been identical with 
the cam/>us sacer or ager doinini of Antoninus, ch. xiii. Compare the 
note to Anon, v., i, ch. xi. 

* Theoderich, ch. xxix., says 'the crest of Mount Quarantana and 
its subterranean caves are full of victuals and arms belonging to the 
Templars, who can have no stronger fortress, or one better suited for 
the annoyance of the infidels' (p. 47 in this series). 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM II. ii 



is called Quarantena, because Christ fasted there for forty 
days. At the top of the mount is the place where Satan 
tempted Him. From thence one goes to the Jordan. 

VIII. There is also a place without the city of Jerusalem, 
which is called the * charnel-house of the lion,' where rest the 
bodies of many saints. Beyond this there is a monastery 
of Georgians, called *At Stump' or * At Stock, '^ because 
the wood of the holy cross is said to have been cut down at 
that place. The altar stands on the place where the stump 
was. On the road which leads to Bethlehem is Rachel's 
tomb, and the place where Elias is revered, and a church 
dedicated to him is built there. There is the place where 
the Lord was born . . . ; there Jerome is buried. There 
are many relics of the Holy Innocents. Not far off is the 
place which is called Gloria in excelsis, because when the 
Lord was born the angels were heard there singing * Glory 
to God in the highest.' As one goes to St. Abraham^ at 
Hebron, one first meets with the root of the oak of (Mount) 
Mamre. At this place also there is now a church dedicated 
to the Holy Trinity.^ At Hebron is the place where Cain 
killed his brother Abel. There also is the mount where 
each of them made offerings of their first-fruits to the Lord. 
There also is shown the earth whereof Adam was made. 
Returning, one must pass through the Church of St. John 
Baptist, on the spot where he himself preached in the 
wilderness baptism and repentance. At that place there is 
an unfailing spring of water, which burst forth at his prayer 
at the time of his preaching. From hence one goes to St. 
Zachariah, to the place where he and St. Elizabeth used to 
dwell when he had fulfilled his duty as priest. It was there 
that the Blessed Mary greeted St. Elizabeth, and the Babe 
leaped in her womb. From thence one goes by the castle 
called Emmaus into the Holy City. 

^ Ad Truncum sive Stipitem. ^ See note, p. 26. 

^ See Tobler's note to Theoderich, ch. xxxiv. 



12 ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 

IX. Near the city is the place Gion, where now there is 
a monastery of Greeks. On the left hand, near the Mount 
of Olives, there is a monastery of Syrians. In the valley 
between the Mount of Olives and Mount Gion .... On 
the Mount of Olives tliere is (? can be seen) the lake which 
is called the Dead Sea, where the four cities of the Sodo- 
mites, Gomorrha and the rest of them, were swallowed up. 
Jordan enters into that lake and is lost therein. 

X. In the city there is a monastery of Jacobites,^ wherein 
is the head of St. James and the arm of St. Stephen the first 
martyr. The Jacobites also own the church of St. Mary 
Magdalen, where they show some of her hair. In the 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the gate which looks towards 
the chapel belonging to the Syrians, wherein they keep the 
holy cross, is that very door at which St. Mary of Egypt^ 
stood, and could not enter save after true repentance. 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM III. 
{\2th century^ 

THIS IS THE WAY TO THE HOLY LAND. 

I. First from the port of Brindisi,^ which is a city in the 
kingdom of Apulia, one crosses the sea, a journey of three 
days and three nights, to the city of Clarence,^ which stands 
in the isle of Romania. Here there is clear and excellent 
wine, and grassy hills, and abundance of sweet air; and in 
that isle there are one hundred and twenty-three good 
cities, and fair women. From Clarence one travels one 
hundred miles by sea to the castle of the city of Thoron, 

^ See Rjcoldus, ch. xvii., p. 124, in Laurent : * Quatuor medii aevi 
peregrinatores.' Hamburg, 1864. 

2 See Willis's ' Holy Sepulchre,' p. 102; Anon. iv. y. 
^ Braftdicia. Saewulf calls it Brandia. 
* See Fabri, vol. i., p. 183, note 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM III. 13 



where there is a good isle, vineyards, many towns, hills, and 
groves. 

II. From Thoron one goes by sea to the city of Candia, 
which is in an isle belonging to the Greeks, three hundred 
miles further. In this isle there are twelve excellent cities, 
good vineyards, fertile trees that bear piecious gums, divers 
herbs and aromatic drugs, and much wealth in jewels and 
rich raiment. From Caadia one goes by sea six hundred 
miles to Cyprus, which is a city on an exceeding high 
mountain and a little isle, having only nine cities, and good 
vineyards and divers shrubs. From Cyprus one goes by 
sea one hundred miles to the port of the city of Kaffa, which 
has dominion over more than one hundred and twelve isles 
of the sea. There are excellent vineyards, and aromatic 
herbs, and precious stones, divers kinds of merchandise, 
cunning workmen, and beauteous women, skilled in needle- 
work, and exceeding, devout. At this place St. Mark the 
Evangelist preached and wrought many miracles. Moreover, 
it is two days' journey by land from Bapha (sic) to Lymatzu 
(Limasol), which is the capital city of the order of St. John 
the Baptist, and also of the order of Knights Templars.^ 
Also from Lymatzu to the city of Famagusta is one day's 
journey by sea, and there is the capital of the Order ot 
St. Lazarus^ and of the Holy Ghost. Also from Nicosia 

* Locus capitalis sancti Johannis Baptistae et etiam ordinis 
lemplariorum. Probably when this was written the Christians had 
been driven out of the Holy Land. According to Fuller C Holy Warre,' 
Book iii., ch. 7), ' King Richard . . . pawned the island to the 
Templars for ready money.' Mrs. Batson Joyner, in her edition of 
Herr von Loher's account of Cyprus (London, Allen and Co., 1878), 
says that the Templars established themselves at Limasol in the 
reign of Guy de Lusignan. I find no mention of the Hospitallers 
there. For an account of the connection of the Templars with Cyprus, 
and especially with Limasol, see Florio Bustron's ' Chronicle of the 
isle of Cyprus,' edited by R^n^ de Mas Latrie, Paris, 1886, p. 169, etc. 
2 The Order of St. Lazarus is often confused with that of the 
Hospitallers, but was nevertheless an older and distinct organization. 



14 ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 

one goes by sea one hundred miles to the city of Cypris. 
And in that island there are one hundred and thirty cities 
and good castles, excellent sweet wine, handsome, strong 
and brave men, and a great and exceeding rich kingdom. 
There St. Patrick^ wrought many miracles in his lifetime, 

The fact of its headquarters having been at Cyprus is mentioned in 
'The City of Herod and Saladin,' by E. H. Palmer and W. Besant, 
p. 274. But the ' Histoife des Ordres Religieux' says of these knights 
that 'aiant este chasses de la Terre Sainte Tan 1253 ils suivirent le 
Roi Saint Louis, qui, en reconnoissance des services qu'ils lui avaient 
rendus en Orient, confirma )es Donations que ses predecesseurs leur 
avoient faites. . . . Pour lors ils establirent le Chef de leur Ordre a 
Boiegny pres i. Orleans, qui leur avoist este donnd des Tan 1154, par 
Louis dit le Jeune, et le Grand-Maistre prit le Titre de Grand-Maistre 
de rOrdre de St. Lazare, tant de9a que dela les mers, sa jurisdiction 
s'etendant non seulement sur les chevaliers qui estoient en France, 
mais mesme sur tout les Estrangers ' (' Histoire des ordres Religieux,' 
Paris, 1714, vol i., p. 264). ' In Kalendario ^Ethiopum Habessinorum 
die XX Maii memoria legitur S. Lazari, Episcopi Cypri, qui secunda 
vice mortuus est, inquiunt, postquam nempe a Domino a mortuis 
fuerat excitatus' (Oriens Christianus, Le Quien, Paris, 1740, folio). 
But Roger Hoveden's Chronicle says that Lazarus was Bishop of 
Marseilles, and was buried there. See ' Histoire de Tile de Chypre 
sous les Lusignans,' par R. de Mas Latrie, vol. i., p. 74 ; Paris, 1861. 
The order of the Holy Ghost (du S. Esprit au droit-desir) was founded 
by Louis of Tarentum, in memory of his having been crowned on the 
Day of Pentecost, 1352, King of Sicily and Jerusalem. ' Ilinstitua un 
Ordre Militaire sous le nom du S. Esprit du droit-desir, plus connu 
commundment sous le nom de I'Ordre du Noeud' ('Histoire des 
Ordres Religieux,' Paris, 1714). See also ' Flores Historiarum,' 
A.D. 1244, vol. ii., p. 272, in the Rolls series. 

1 I can nowhere find any account of St. Patrick, whether the 
apostle of Ireland or any other saint of that name, having been in 
Cyprus. Of St. John I find the following notice in M. R. de Mas 
Latrie's History : * St. Jean Lampadiste, le Brilliant^ \ Illumine^ e?t, 
a juste titre, un des Saints populaires de I'ile, surtout dans les cantons 
du Nord Ouest, ou il est n^ et d'ou est venu Viaisemblablement 
son nom. Sa vie, peu connue d'ailleurs, pirait n'avoir rien 
d'dclatant. ... La Montagne de Troodus, au contraire, I'antique 
Olympe chypriote, au pied de laquelle Jean vint au monde, a ^td 
nomme Lampadiste (Florio Bustron, fol. 32), a cause des neiges qui 
par une exception unique dans Tile, blanchissent quelque fois ses plus 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM III. ,5 



and there also rests St. John who went with Christ to His 
crucifixion. Also from the isle of Cypris men go to the 
castle of Asarimumi by the sea, towards the kingdom of 
Armenia.2 The whole province of Cyprus hath in circuit 
six hundred miles. 

III. As one journeys further on towards Jerusalem, one 
leaves the harbour of the city of Phamum (? Famagosta), 
and goes by sea three hundred miles to the city of Jaffa. 
There beginneth the main land ; that is to say, the Holy 
Land. Also from Jaffa to Jerusalem one goes by land 
twelve miles to Rama, a great and fair city. 

IV. Also from Rama to Jerusalem, the holy city, is 
thirty-eight miles, overland, and there is Christ's sepulchre. 
There is a great round church, having three exceeding 
beauteous doors of marble, and in this church is now the 
Place of Calvary, a great rock as tall as a man. In this 

hautes cimes.' He was called ' Lampadiste,' no doubt because of the 
fires lighted on St. John's Eve. Cf. Fabri, vol. i., p. 191, and ' Norway 
and the Norwegians,' by C. F. Keary, Percival and Co., London, 
1892, for an account of the midsummer fires. 

1 Place unknown ; perhaps mouth of the Sarus. 

2 The Cilician kingdom of Armenia had nothing to do with Armenia 
Minor, though called Lesser Armenia in the Middle Ages. After the 
Byzantines murdered Gagik, the last king of Armenia Proper, one of 
his relatives, Rupen, escaped to Cilicia, and established himself there. 
He and his successors were at constant war with the Byzantine?, and 
sometimes in alliance, sometimes at war, with the Latins (Crusaders). 
They had several capitals at various times — Tarsus, Anazarba, and 
Sis, or Cis. The last, still the seat of an Armenian Catholicos and a 
quasi-rival of Etchmiadzin, was Leo's capital ; it is at the foot of 
Taurus, north-east of Adana. Leo II. was crowned (see p. 28) by 
Conrad von Wittelsbach, Archbishop of Mainz, in the name of the 
Emperor Philip, in 1198, and married two Latin princesses in succes- 
sion. Leo conquered part of Isauria, but it was not held long, and 
there was no permanent establishment north of the Taurus. The 
Armenians held the mountains north-east of Sis strongly, and the last 
relic of the old Armenian kingdom is Zeitun, which, up to about 1876, 
maintained a sort of semi-independence. 



i6 ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 

rock there is a hole, which is said to be in the middle of the 
earth, and in this hole the Lord's cross was set. Christ was 
buried close to Calvary, and the stone which was put at 
the mouth of His tomb 'is a great red one. Above the 
Lord's sepulchre brightly burns a lamp, wondrously adorned, 
which goes out of itself every year at the ninth hour on 
Good Friday, and again lights itself on Easter Day, at the 
hour of Christ's resurrection. This lamp is said to have 
been placed here in honour of the Holy Sepulchre by 
Martha and her brother Lazarus. 

V. Also from Jerusalem it is one day's journey or four 
miles to tl>e city of Bethlehem. Christ was born at 
Bethlehem without the city, at the place where a church 
has been built and dedicated to the glorious Virgin, which 
church is now within the city. In this church all those 
possessed by devils and all who have the falling sickness 
are set free and healed in the sight of all men, and man}- 
other miracles are daily displayed there. Moreover, every 
year in the middle of the night, at the hour when Christ 
was born, all the trees round about the city of Bethlehem 
bow their branches down to the ground toward the place 
where Christ was born, and when the sun rises gradually 
raise them up again. 

VL Also from Bethlehem it is one day's journey to the 
river Jordan, where Christ was baptized by John. Also 
from the river Jordan it is one mile ... to the Mount of 
Olives, and between the Mount of Olives and Mount Sion 
is the Valley of Jehoshaphat, an exceeding pleasant place. 
Vn. Also it is two days' journey from Jerusalem to 
Nazareth, in which city the angel Gabriel announced Christ 
to the Virgin Mary. Here also a fair church, called the 
Church of the Annunciation to Mary, has been built. In 
it many miracles have been wrought, and they are dis- 
played there even to this day. 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM III. 



VIII. Likewise in the Valley of Jehoshaphat there is a 
great church built of stone, wherein is the sepulchre of the 
adorable Virgin Mary, and also a high altar hewn all out of 
one stone, which is said to have been wrought by the hands 
of angels. In that church there is ofttimes an exceeding 
sweet odour, yet not all men, but only such as are virgins, 
chaste and devout, can smell it. At that church it is said 
that such large indulgence is granted that whosoever of 
the Christian faith shall come thither during his pilgrimage 
on the day of the Assumption of the glorious Virgin, 
having confessed and repented him of his sins, he shall 
be absolved from his sins and from the punishment thereof. 

IX. Also it is a five days' journey from Nazareth to the 
city of Jericho, which is a pleasant place, abounding with 
vineyards, and of a fertile soil. Here the Lord lightened 
the eyes of the blind man who was crying out by the road- 
side. On this spot a church, called the Church of Christ's 
Miracles, has been built. 

X. Also it is a four days' journey from Jericho to the 
city of Samaria, where is Jacob's Well. It was beside this 
well that the Lord thirsted by the way, and begged for 
drink from a woman that was a sinner. 

Also from Samaria . . . 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM IV. 

(IVot earlier than 12th century?) 
I. The shortest way to the (Holy) Land is from Famagusta, 
to Akris^ on the third day, and to Yaf^ in three days and 
nights. Akris lies lower down. First of all, from tlie 
country of Cyprus one goes by sea to the city of Yaf in 
three days and nights. Also from Yaf it is three German 
miles to Raniatha. 

1 Acre. See Anon. ii. i, and Tobler's note to Theodericb, ch. xlvii. 

2 Jaffa. 

2 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 



II. Also from Ramatha it is one day's journey to the holy 
city of Jerusalem, which is built upon the Mount Sion. In 
Jerusalem is the holy sepulchre of the Lord. Also without 
the city there are three places v/here Christ prayed to the 
Father. A place is shown there, beneath that same Mount 
of Olives, where the disciples sat them down heavy with 
sleep. Also there is shown the place where Jesus was taken 
in the garden. Also there is shown the house of Annas, to 
which the Lord was first brought, which is within the city. 
Also there is the house of Caiaphas. Also the house of 
Pilate. Also the house of Herod. Also there is the place 
where the Lord was scourged. Also the place where He 
was found guilty of death. Also it was through the iron 
gate that the Lord bore His cross when he went to His 
death. There also is the place where the Virgin Mother 
met her Son and scarce knew Him from excess of trouble. 
And there are the fifteen steps up which the Lord went to 
the place of Calvary. Also there is the place where He 
was crucified, and where the cross was fixed in the rock. Also 
there is the place where the Lord was laid after He was 
taken down from the cross. Also there is the place where 
the Lord was wrapped in fine linen and laid in the most 
holy sepulchre. Also there is the place where the Lord 
first appeared to Mary Magdalen after His resurrection. 
Also there is the place where St. Helena found the Lord's 
holy croFs. Also there is the place where the Lord's cross 
was laid upon a dead man and he came to life again. 

III. Also there is the place where the Lord appeared to 
the disciples as they sat on Mount Sion with closed doors 
after the resurrection. Also on that same mount there is 
the place where Thomas put his fingers into the Saviour's 
side. Also on that same mount there is the place where 
the Lord sent down the Holy Ghost upon the disciples. 
Also on that same mount there is the place where the Lord 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM IV. 



supped with His disciples on Maundy Thursday. Also on 
that same mount rests King David. Also on that same 
mount there is St. Mary's house, wherein she dwelt after 
the resurrection of her beloved Son. Also there is the 
place where the same glorious Virgin sickened and died. 

IV. Also there is the house of St. Anne, the mother 
(grandmother) of God, wherein she bore the glorious Virgin. 
Also there is the house of Simon the leper, where Mary 
Magdalen's many sins were forgiven her. Also there are 
four statues, which sweated bloody sweat even as they do 
to this day, out of sympathy for the Lord. Also on Palm 
Sunday the Lord entered through the Golden Gate. 

V. Also without the city is the Valley of Jehoshaphat, 
wherein is the Virgin Mary's sepulchre. Also there is the 
Pool of Siloam, wherein the man who was born blind, 
whose eyes the Lord opened, washed himself. Also within 
the city is Solomon's temple and the sheep- pool. Also with- 
out the city is the Potter's Field, that is, the Field of Blood. 

VL Also on the Mount of Olives the Lord appeared to 
His disciples after His resurrection. Also on that same 
mount the Lord ascended into heaven. Also in that same 
place there is the sepulchre of St. Mary of Egypt.^ 

Vn. Also Gaffa, where the holy Apostles James and 
John the Evangelist were born. It is two days' journey 
distant from Jerusalem toward the north. 

VIII. Also Mount Quarentenus, where the Lord fasted 
and was tempted of the devil. It is five good German 
miles from Jerusalem. At the same place, too, is Abraham's 
Garden, 2 Avhere the holy prophets are buried. Also the 
Jordan, where the Lord was baptized. It is about twelve 
German miles from Jerusalem. 

IX. Also Nazareth, where the Lord was announced and 
conceived. It is about three days' journey from Jerusalem. 

1 See p. lo ; aUo Fabri ii., 35. ^ See p. 10, note 3. 



20 ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 

Also Akkaron (Acre), where the Lord's Field is.^ It is three 
days' journey from Jerusalem, on the same road as Nazareth. 

X. Also the Valley of Hebron, where Adam is said to 
have been buried ... is one mile from Jerusalem, and 
Hebron is four miles further. 

XI. Also Bethany,^ where the Lord raised Lazarus from 
the dead. It is fifteen stadia from Jerusalem. A stone's 
throw in front of the castle of Bethany is the place where 
Martha and Mary met the Lord to beg Him to raise 
Lazarus. In Bethlehem (Bethany) is Simon's house, into 
which he invited the Lord. There also is Martha's house, 
wherein the Lord was entertained. This house has been 
made into a church in honour of the sisters. Also not far 
from that same house there stands a marble chapel on the 
spot were Lazarus was raised. 

XII. We are shown the path down the Mount of Olives 
where the Hebrew children cried to the Lord, ' Hosanna in 
the highest 1' and where also the Lord wept over the city. 
Thence one goes on between the place of Jesus's prayer 
and the place in Gethsernane where He was taken prisoner, 
and comes to Golgotha. 

XIII. The Valley of Jehoshaphat, wherein is our Lady's 
sepulchre, protects the city on one side. At this place there 
is now a church, but it is sixty steps beneath the earth. 
There is a chapel without the sepulchre before the stone 
altar, and beneath that chapel is the brook Cedron. It is 
a damp church. Not far away, fifty feet from the door of 
that chapel, is the door of another church, which is called 
•Gethsemane. 

XIV. At the foot of Mount Sion is the fountain of 
Siloam, and next to it the bathing-pool of Siloam. About a 

^ See p. lo, note 3. 

2 Here, Tobler points out, the description of the holy places begins 
over again. 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM IV. 21 



stone's-throw from these is Aceldama, the Strangers' Field. 
Therein there are many famous tombs. There Isaiah was 
buried. He was sawn asunder near the fountain of Siloam, 
and his sepulchre stands more than a stone's-throw distant 
from Siloam. 

XV. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre is round, and 
hath the pre-eminence. It is seventy-four feet in diameter 
between the columns, not counting the apses, which project 
thirty feet away all round, standing out beyond the outer 
wall of the church.^ Above the Lord's sepulchre, which is 
in the middle of the church, there is a round opening, and 
(the sepulchre) is everywhere cased with marble without, but 
within it is bare rock, even as it was at the time of the Passion. 

One enters the sepulchre at a very low, small door on 
the east side. The tomb in the sepulchre is on the right 
hand as one comes in, against the north wall, and is of 
gray marble, eight feet long, and closed on all sides. No 
daylight can co;ne into it, because there is n ) window, but 
nine lamps hang there and light up the sepulchre. There 
is another cave before one comes to the Lord's cave, of 
the same length and width and arrangement both within 
and without. As one comes out these two caves seem, as 
seen from without, to be one; but when you have entered 

1 Et habet per diametrum inter cohmtnas Ixxiv. pedes praeter 
absidesy quae habent per circuitu7n a muro exteriori ecclesiae xxx 
pedes. This sentence is somewhat confused, but presents no difficulty, 
I think, when referred to the plan of. the Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre. The distance across the diameter of the circle of 
columns is first measured, and then, instead of measuring from the 
circle of columns to the outer wall, our author measures from the 
circle of columns to the furthest part of one of the three identical 
apses which project from the circular outer wall of the church. 
Measured on Professor Willis's plan, the distance from the ring of 
columns to the end of any one of the three ap?es comes to exactly 
seventy feet. 1 think therefore that per circuitum means ' round 
about the circle of columns,' or vaguely 'all round.' It cannot mean 
' round the outer wall,' 



22 ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 

in, you will see that tliey are separated from one another 
by a wall. One enters first the one, and then the other in 
which is the sepulchre. It was the outer one into which 
the women entered when they said, ' Who will roll the 
stone away for us ?' and so forth. This stone was rolled up 
to the door of the inner cave, and to this day a great part 
thereof lies before that same door ; the other part has been 
removed to Mount Sion for an altar. Mount Calvary is 
io8 feet distant from the sepulchre. The place of the 
crucifixion is a hole two palms deep and as many wide, 
which will take in a man's head. 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM V. i. 

{According to W. Neumann, the pilgrimage described both in 
V. I and V. 2 was earlier than 1187, but the book not 
written before 1198, or the beginning of the i%th century , 
a little earlier than Thietmar.) 

1. From Accon I went to Caifa,^ which is at the foot of 
Mount Carmel, where dwelt Elijah the prophet. From 
thence I came to Caesarea, thence to Assur, thence to 
Joppa, thence to Rama, thence to Bethnopolis, thence to 
Jerusalem, which is entered by St. Stephen's Gate, where 
he was stoned. 

II. Thence one enters the Lord's sepulchre, where there 
is a circle which the Lord said was in the middle of the 
world. On the right hand of the choir is Mount Cal- 
vary, where the Lord suffered on the cross. Beneath is 
Golgotha, where the Lord's blood rent the rock and fell 
upon Adam's head. Before Golgotha the Kings of Jeru- 
salem are buried.^ Behind the (tomb of the) high altar is 
the pillar to which the Lord was bound and scourged. 

1 See Fetellus, p. 48, De Vogue's note. 

^ See appendix to Theodcriirh in this series. 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM V. r. 23 

Hard by, down a stair of forty steps, is the place where 
St. Helena found the holy cross. On the right hand of 
the choir is the Lord's prison and chain. At the entrance 
to the holy sejjulchre, down a stair of forty steps,^ is the 
chapel of the Greeks, wherein is the image of the blessed 
Virgin Mary, which spoke to St. Mary of Egypt and con- 
verted her. Near it is the holy cros^, which was found on 
the 2 1 St day of May ; from thence one takes one's way to 
the Chapel of the Holy Prison. Over against the holy 
sepulchre, on the south side, is the Hospital of St. John. 
Beside it, on the ri^ht, there is a nunnery. Near this is 
another monastery, which is called (St. Mary) the Latin : 
it was there that the blessed Mary and the other Marys 
tore their hair when the Lord was dying on the cross. 

HI. Two bowshots from this place is the temple of the 
Lord, to which there are four entrances and iwenty-two 
doors.2 In the midst of the temple there is a great and 
holy rock, whereon He was presented. Here may be seen 
Jacob's footprints, and here Jacob saw the angels ascend- 
ing and descending. Here Abraham made a sacrifice to 
God of his son Isaac. Beneath the rock is the place 
which is called the Holy of Holies, where the Lord wrote 
with His finger on the ground, and where He forgave her 
sins to the woman who was taken in adultery. On the 
right is the place where the angel appeared to Zacharias 
the prophet. The gate which looks toward the west is 
called the Beautiful Gate, and that which looks toward the 
east is called the Gate of Paradise, which was spoken of by 
the prophet, ' I saw water,' etc.^ 

IV. By the way out, near the temple enclosure, is the 

sheep-pool, where at times the angel of the Lord came down 

into the water. Near this place is St. Anne's Church, and 

^ Probably repeated from above. 

■^ Compare John of Wiirzburg, pp. 16, 17. 

^ Ezek. xlvi'. i. See John of Wiirzburg, p. 16. 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 



her sepulchre, and another sheep-pool.^ As one goes up to- 
wards the sepulchre there is Pilate's judgment-hall, in front 
whereof the Blessed Virgin stood in hiding in the street, 
weeping and waiting to see what would become of her Son. 

V. To return to the temple : the gate which looks to- 
ward the east is called the Jerusalem Gate, and along this 
passage may be seen the footprints of the ass which bore 
our Lord. Below are the Golden Gates. Before the Lord's 
temple, on the south side, is Solomon's temple, and at the 
corner of the city is the Lord's column^ and His bath. 

VI. Near the Tower of David there is a chapel belong- 
ing to the Greeks, where are the relics of SS. John Chry- 
sostom, Demetrius, and Martin.^ Near this is a chapel 
belonging to the Armenians, where St. James, the son of 
Zebedee, was beheaded. 

VII. Thence one makes one's way to Mount Sion. It 
was in the church in this place that the Blessed Virgin 
passed away from this world. Here is a chapel, on the 
place where the Lord was judged, scourged, and crowned 
with thorns. This was once the house and judgment-hall 
of Caiaphas. Above the great church of Mount Sion is 
the Chapel of the Holy Ghost, where it came down upon 
the disciples on the Day of Pentecost. The altar stands 
on the spot where He supped with His disciples. Beneath 
is the place where the Lord washed His disciples' feet. It 
was into this place that the Lord came to His disciples as 
they sat with closed doors, and said : * Peace be unto you.' 

VIII. In the valley at the foot of Mount Sion there is a 

chapel which is called Galilee, and which stands on the 

place where St. Peter was when the cock crew% Near it is 

^ This 'olher sheep-pool' is conjectured by Tobler to be identical 
with the spring. 

2 Der pfeiler ist das spater als Mohammed's sitz bezeichnete Saulen- 
stuck an der Sudost ecke der Tempel und S'adt Mauer, in angulo 
civitatis.— W. Neumann. See Fabii, vol. ii., pait i, p. 130. 

3 See Pal. Exp. Fund, Quarterly Statement, October, 1893, p. 283. 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM V. \. 25 



the bathing-pool of Siloam, where the Lord opened the eyes 
of a man blind from his birth. At this place the prophet 
Isaiah was buried. Beyond the bathing-pool of Siloam 
is the field Acheldamach, the burial-place of strangers. 

IX. Beneath the Golden Gate runs the brook Cedron, 
wherein David picked five stones and slew Goliath with 
them. Near it is the place of Josaphat and the sepulchre 
of the Blessed Virgin Mary, from which .she was taken up 
into heaven. Near to this is Gethsemane, where the Lord 
was taken prisoner; and there the print of His fingers 
may be seen on a* wall. A stone's-throw further stands 
the Church of the Saviour, where He prayed to His 
Father, and His sweat was as .... In the valley beneath 
a sharp . . } King Josaphat is buried, and therefore it is 
called the Valley of Josaphat. Beside this valley is the 
Mount of Olives, where the Lord ascended into heaven. 
There is a stone, whereon His footprints may be seen to 
this day. Near it is a chapel of the Greeks, in which rests 
the body of St. Pelagia.^ There is also another chapel, 
on the place where the Lord made the Lord's Prayer. 

X. It is one mile from the Mount of Olives to Bethany, 
where the Lord raised Lazarus and forgave Mary her sins. 
From hence it is twelve miles to Quarentena, where the 
Lord fasted for forty days and was tempted by Satan. At 
the foot of the Mount is Abraham's Garden. This is near 
Jericho, whence it is four miles to the Jordan. From 
thence to Sinai is eight days' journey.^ 

1 Sub acu. Probably the text, which is clearly corrupt, followed 
John of Wiirzburg, who has sub acuto pyrainide. Compare note, p. 68. 

'■^ * Pelagia dwelt on the Mount of Olives in the fifth century, and 
had her food passed through a hole in the wall. Antoninus saw her 
cell and her grave. Probably she was the foundress of a nunnery 
which existed until the invasion of the Persians or of the Arabs under 
Omar.' — Tobler. See pp. 10 andi73, 3^"^ Fabri, i. 498, 499. 

3 ' Una diaeta Eusebio auctore sunt xii. pass rom.' Jac de Vitr. 
lib. iii., pag€ 5 apud Gretzer gibt xii. ; Odoricus (p. 155), xv , diaetas 
an. — Neumann. 



26 ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS.: 

XI. The convent of St. Elias is two miles to the south 
of Jerusalem. Near it is the 'flowery field, '^ and by the 
road-side is Rachel's Tomb. One mile from that place 
is Bethlehem, where the Lord was born and laid in the 
manger. On the right-hand side of the choir there is a well, 
into which the star is said to have fallen. On the 
left-hand side are . the Holy Innocents. Beneath the 
cloister is the sepulchre of St. Jerome. It is two 
miles from hence to the place where the shepherds 
abode by night, and where the angel sang ' Glory to God 
in the highest.' It is twelve miles from Bethlehem to the 
place of St. Abraham.^ Here it was that God made Adam, 
and Adam wept for his son Abel for a hundred years. 
There also sleep the bodies of the holy patriarchs. It is 
one mile from Jerusalem to the place where the holy 
cross grew. From Jerusalem to Emmaus is six miles. 

XII. It is twenty- four miles from Jerusalem to Samaria, 
which i^ called Neapolis. At this place is Jacobus Well, 
where the Lord talked with the woman.^ It is four miles 
farther to Sebastia, where John the Baptist was beheaded. 
From that place to Mount Tabor is twenty- three miles. 

^ Campus floridus. W. Neumann says : ' Auch Odoricus (153) Von 
Gyon weg unam leucam manebant Samuel et Helias, et ibi est campus 
ubi Helias raptus est in celum, et dicitur campus floridus. Moglich 
ist es,das es dasselbe Feld ist, welches Bern, mon., 16, erwahnt als das 
Feld in quo laborabat Habacuc, quum Angelus Domini jussit ei 
prandium ferre Danieli in Babylon'; cf. Theod., ch. xxxvi. See 
Anton. Plac, xxxii. ; Tobler, Topogr., ii. 573. Mediaeval accounts of 
the 'campus floridus' vary considerably. Ricoldus de Monte Crucis 
says, p. in: ' Inde descendentes per vallem Josaphat venimus ad 
locum ubi erat ortus, in quem introivit Jhesus. Et ibi invenimus 
locum ubi oravit, et ubi captus fuit juxta ortum. Et nunc dicitur 
campus florum.' Fabri, 543-5 ; City of Jerusalem, pp. 41, 58. See 
also Sir John Maundeville, ch. vi. 

2 Compare 'The City of Jerusalem,' p. 55. note, and Dr. Tobler's 
note to Innom. VII , p. 106 (' Descriptiones,' Leipzig, 1874). 

3 Phocas, Maundrell, and Burchard. 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM V. 2. 27 

Thence to Nazareth six miles. It is one mile from Nazareth 
to Sephoria, where St. Anne was born. From thence it 
is six miles to Cana^ in Galilee, where the Lord turned 
water into wine. From Sephoria it is six miles to 
Saphranum, where St. James and St. John, the sons of 
Zebedee, were born. From Accon it is six days' journey 
to Tortosa,^ where the Apostles built a chapel in honour of 
the Blessed Virgin.^ 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM V. 2. 

{For date, see p. 22) 

I. The land'of Jerusalem lies in the midst of the earth. It 
is chiefly mountainous, yet is not barren of produce. It is 
bounded on the east by Arabia, on the south by Egypt, on 
the west by the Great Sea, on the north by Syria and the 
Cyprian Sea. This from the most ancient times has been 
the common fatherland of all nations, seeing that men 
come thither to worship the holy places from every part of 
the world, even as we read in the Acts of the Apostles, 
about the sending of the Holy Spirit : ' Parthians and 
Medes and Elamites,' etc. But now people dwell therein, 
and have houses and places of prayer therein. 

II. Of these some are Christians, and some are not. 
There are divers races of Christians, and they are divided 
into various sects. Of these, the first are the Franks, who 
are moie properly called Latins. They are warlike men, 
practised in arms, are bareheaded, and are the only one of 

^ From this passage W. Neumann argues that the traditional place 
of the miracle must have been Kana el Jelil, not Kefr Kenna — 
Oesterreschische vierteljahrschrift fur KathoHsche Theologie, 1866. 
Compare ' The City of Jerusalem,' p. 44, note. 

^ Tortosa : Antaradus. 

^ ' Ibi etiam beatus Petrus primam ecclesiam in honorem beate 
Virginis construxit, quae hodie permanet.' — Jac. de Vitry, 44. Cf. 
Wilbrand in Laurent's ' Ouatuor peregrin.,' p. 169. 



28 ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 



all these races who shave the beard. They are all called 
Latins, because they use the Latin tongue. They are 
pure Catholics. 

IIL Others are Greeks, who are separated from the 
Church of Rome. They are cunning men, not much 
practised in arms, and they err from the true faith and 
the articles thereof, especially in that they say that the 
Holy Ghost doth not proceed from the Father and the 
Son, but from the Father alone. They also use leaven in 
the Sacrament ; and they err in many other matters, and 
have an alphabet of their own. 

IV. Others are Syrians. These are useless in war. For 
the most part they do not let their beards grow like the 
Greeks, but trim them somewhat. They do not follow 
either the Latin or the Greek rite. They are everywhere 
tributary to other nations. In their faith and sacraments, 
they agree in all respects with the Greeks. They use the 
Saracenic alphabet, and in all matters spiritual and temporal 
they are like the Greeks. 

V. Others are Armenians.^ These have some slight 
skill in arms, and differ in many respects from the Latins 
and Greeks. They hold their forty days' fast at the time 
of Christ's nativity ; they celebrate Christ's nativity on 
the day of the Apparition,^ and do many other things 
contrary to the rules of the Church. They have a language 
of their own, and there is an irreconcilable hatred between 
them and the Greeks. But of late they have promised 
obedience to the Church of Rome, since their king has 
received his crown from, the hands of the Archbishop of 
Mainz, the Legate of the Holy See.^ 

VI. Others are Georgians, and worship St. George with 

^ See note, p. 15. 

2 Sir H. Nicolas gives the date of the Apparitio Dofnini as the 6th 
of January. 

•^ See p. 1 3, note 2. 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM V. 2. 29 



solemn ritual. They let their hair and beard grow long, 
and wear hats a cubit high. All of them, both churchmen 
and laymen, wear the tonsure ;^ the clergy wear it round, 
and the laity square. . They use leaven in the Mass, and 
imitate the Greeks in almost all respects, but have their 
own alphabet. 

VII. Others are Jacobins or Jacobites, who have been 
led astray by one James into the Nestorian heresy, and do 
greatly err. They use the Chaldaean alphabet. 

VIII. Others are Nestorians, who are heretical in their 
faith, saying that the Blessed Mary was only the mother of 
a man, and erring in many other matters. They use the 
Chaldaean alphabet. 

IX. Moreover, the Latins are divided into various 
nations — to wit, Germans, Spaniards, Gauls, Italians, and 
the other nations which Europe produces. Three Italian 
peoples are especially powerful and useful in the land of 
Jerusalem — to wit, the Genoese, the Venetians, and the 
Pisans. They are skilled in the use of arms, invincible at 
sea, practised in every kind of warfare, cunning in the 
art of trading, and are altogether free from all tribute and 
toll whatsoever, and exempt from all jurisdiction, making 
their own laws for themselves. But among themselves they 
are jealous and quarrelsome, §0 that the Saracens are safer 
with them than they are with one another. 

X. In this land there are two religious houses, to wit, the 
Temple and the Hospital. They have an exceeding great 
abundance of riches, for they have property in and draw 
revenues from every part of Europe. When they go to 
the wars, the Templars fight on the right wing and the 
Hospitallers on the left. 

XL The Templars are most excellent soldiers. They 
wear white mantles with a red cross, and when they go to 
' Thietmar, xxix. 



30 ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 

the wars a standard of two colours called balzaus^ is borne 
before them. They go in silence. Their first attack is the 
most terrible.2 In going they are the first, in returning 
the last. They await the orders of their Master. When 
they think fit to make war and the trumpet has sounded, 
they sing in chorus the Psalm of David, ' Not unto us, 
O Lord' {Non nobis, Domine, Ps. 115), kneeling on the 
blood and necks of the enemy, unless they have forced 
the troops of the enemy to retire^ altogether, or utterly 
broken them in pieces. Should any one of them for any 
reason turn his back to the enemy, or come forth alive 
(from a defeat), or bear arms against the Christians, he is 
severely punished : the white mantle with the red cross, 
which is the sign of his knighthood, is taken away with 
ignominy, he is cast out from the society of the brethren, 
and eats his food on the floor* without a napkin for the 
space of one year. If the dogs molest him, he does not 
dare to drive them away. But at the end of the year, if the 
Master and the brethren think his penance to have bt^en 
sufficient, they restore him the belt of his former knight- 
hood. These Templars live under a strict religious rule, 
obeying humbly, having no private property, eating 
sparingly, dressing meanly, and dwelling in tents. 

XII. The Hospitallers bear a white cross on their 
mantles, and are good knights, who, besides their service 
in the field, take care of the sick and needy. They live 
under a rule and discipline of their own. 

XIII. Furthermore, the land of Jerusalem hath a 

1 Baucea?tt^ J. de Vitr., 65. Thomas says, ' VexilluTi bicolor quod 
balzauo dicitur.' 

2 The text is so corrupt as to be meaningless, and Thomas's reading, 
which Neumann considers to make better sense, seems to me much 
the same. I have given what I believe to be the meaning. 

^ Text seems somewhat corrupt here. 

* See note to an article on the Knights of Malta in the Penny 
Magazine, May 28, 1836. 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM V. 2. 31 

patriarch, who is father of the faith and of Christians, 
and is the vicar of Jesus Christ. He hath four arch- 
bishops •} one in the province of Palestine — to wit, the 
Archbishop of Caesarea; another in the province of 
Phoenicia — to wit, the Archbishop of Tyre ; the third is 
in the province of Galilee — to wit, the Archbishop of 
Nazareth ; and the fourth is in the province of Moab — to 
wit, the Archbishop of Petra, that is, of Monreal. He of 
Caesarea hath one suffragan bishop — to wit, the Bishop of 
Sebaste, the place where John the Baptist and Elisha and 
Abdias the prophet are buried. He of Tyre hath four 
suffragans : the bishops of Acre, Sidon, Beyrout, and him 
of Bleinas,^ which is Caesarea Philippi. He of Nazareth 
hath one suffragan, the Bishop of Tiberias ; while he of Petra 
hath no Latin suffragan, but a Greek one on Mount Sinai.^ 

XIV. The patriarch hath immediately under him the 
-bishops of Bethlehem, of Lydda, and of Hebron, where 

Adam and Eve and the three patriarchs are buried. 

XV. In the Church of the Lord's Sepulchre there are 
Austin canons. They have a prior, but vow obedience 
to the patriarch alone. In the temple of the Lord there 
is an abbot and canons of the rule of St, Austin. Now, it 

1 Compare the list of bishops in Thietmar, ch. xxix., and Fuller, 
' Holy Warre,' Book II., ch. ii., who remarks that * the bishops were set 
too thick for all to grow great, and Palestine fed too many cathedral 
churches to have them generally fat.' 

^ Belinas. 

3 The Latin kings of Jerusalem in the twelfth century claimed 
supremacy over the peninsula of Sinai. ' Nous lisons dans la 
chronique de Bernard le Tre^sorier que le Mont Sinai est en la 
terre de Seignor de Krak (Monrdal, Petra), et que I'eveque grec 
de Pharan, residant au couvent de S. Catherine, est mentionn^ 
alors comme sufifrayant de I'archeveque Latin de Karak.' — Chronique 
d'Ernoul et de Bernard le Tr^sorier, edited by R6n6 de Mas Latrie, 
p. 68. — From the article Seigneurie de Krak et de Montreal^ in 
Recherches sur la Domination des Latins en Orient, by E. A. Rcy, 
Paris, 1877. 



32 ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 



should be known that the temple of the Lord is one thing 
and the temple of the Knights Templars is another ; the 
former are clergy, the latter are soldiers. In the church 
on Mount Zion there is an abbot and canons regular. In 
the church of the Mount of Olives there is an abbot and 
canons regular. In the church of the Valley of Jehosha- 
phat ihere is an abbot and black monks. All the aforesaid, 
together with the bishops above mentioned, help the 
patriarch in his ministry. 

XVI. Moreover, there are the following cities which 
have no bishops : Ascalon, which is subject to the Bishop 
of Bethlehem ; Joppa, which is subject to the canons of 
the holy sepulchre ; Neapolis, which is subject to the 
abbot of the temple ; and Caifa, which is subject to the 
Archbishop of Caesarea. 

XVII. Now, albeit the land of Jerusalem is throughout 
holy and sanctified, seeing that the prophets, the Apostles, 
and the Lord Himself walked thert;in, yet are there certain 
spots which men worship beyond all others with peculiar 
reverence. We will briefly mention their names and merits : 

XVIII. Nazareth, wherein the blessed Virgin Mother 
was born, wherein also, according to the message of the 
angel, the Son of the Most Highest was conceived in her 
womb, wherein He was nurtured and grew to man's estate. 
Bethlehem, wherein was born the Bread of Heaven, whither 
the Magi, guided by the star, brought presents, and where 
also rests Jerome, the translator of the Bible into Latin. 
Jordan, wherein the Saviour by His baptism instituted the 
rite of human salvation, where the Holy Ghost was seen in 
the likeness of a dove, and the Father's voice was heard. 
Also the place of the fast, which is called Quarentena, 
wherein Christ fasted for forty days, and instituted the 
keeping of Lent, where also He was tempted by the devil. 
The Lake of Gennesareth, on whose shores He walked much, 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM V. 2. 33 

wrought many miracles, and called Kis disciples. Mount 
Tabor, whereon He was transfigured in the presence of His 
disciples, and where Moses and Elias appeared with Him. 
XIX. In Jerusalem there are many venerable places, 
such as the Lord^s temple, wherein He was presented, 
from whence He cast out those who bought and sold, and 
from whence James, the Lord's brother, was cast down ; 
Mount Sion, whereon He supped with His disciples and 
instituted the New Testament — here the Holy Gho^t 
appeared in visible form upon the Apostles, and here also 
the Blessed Virgin passed away — Calvary, where for our 
salvation He suffered and died on the cross ; the sepulchre 
wherein His body was laid, and from whence He rose 
again ; the Mount of Olives, where He was honourably 
greeted by the children when He rode upon the ass, and 
from whence He miraculously ascended ; Bethany, where 
He raised Lazarus ; Siloam, where He gave sight to the 
man who was born blind ; the Valley of Josaphat, which 
is called Gethsemane, where He was taken prisoner by the 
Jews, and where the Blessed Virgin was buried ; the church 
of Stephen, who was stoned therein ; and if we look into 
the writings of the Old and New Testament there is not 
from the beginning any valley, any river, any lake which 
has not seen miracles wrought by the prophets, by the 
Apostles, yea, and by Christ Himself. Jacob's Well, in the 
land of Samaria, changes its colour four times in the year, 
being muddy, blood-red, green, and clear. The fountain 
of Siloam, near Mount Sion, doth not run every day, but 
only three days a week. In the land of Jerusalem is the 
Devil's Lake, on the borders of Arabia and Palestine, 
whereon were once five cities, which for the sins of their 
citizens were swallowed up. In this lake nothing that 
hath life can sink. When Vespasian heard this, he 
ordered seven men who could not swim to be thrown 

3 



34 ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 

therein with their hands and feet bound.' They remained 
therein for three days and did not die. Round about the 
lake are treses which bear exceeding beauteous fruit ; but 
the fruit stinks, and when you have plucked it, it stinks 
and of a sudden falls into ashes. 

XX. These be the chief mountains in the land of Jeru- 
salem — Lebanon, Tabor, Hermon, Gilboa, and Carmel. 
Lebanon is exceeding lofty, and separates Syria from 
Phoenicia. It hath exceeding tall trees, yet not an abund- 
ance of them, as of old. With respect to Mount Gilboa, 
it is not true, as some do vainly tell us, that it never rains 
thereon because of David's curse. 

XXL This same" land contains many beasts : there are 
lions, leopards, and an exceeding fierce beast called an 
ounce, from whose rage nothing can be safe, and they say 
that even the lion fears him. There are baboons, which 
they call wild-dogs, who are fiercer than wolves. There 
also are camels, and buffaloes abound. 

XXII. There are exceeding beauteous trees of every 
sort that grow upon the earth : there are date palms with 
their fruit, and the trees which are called trees of Paradise, 
which have leaves above two cubits long and half a cubit 
wide.^ They have an oblong fruit, a hundred of which 
grow touching one another upon one bough, and taste like 
honey. There also are lemon-trees, whose fruit is acid, 
and other trees which bear the fruit called Adam's apple, 
whereon the marks of Adam's teeth may be right plainly 
seen. Also there are sugar-canes, and shrubs which are 
sown like wheat, from whence cotton is gathered. Of old 
there was no balsam in all the world save in the land of 
Jerusalem, and that was in Jericho. Afterwards the 
Egyptians came thither, took away the shrubs into Egypt, 

1 Thietmar, ch. xxix., makes their leaves one ell (aune) long and 
one cubit wide. 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM V. 2. 35 



and planted Ihem in their city of Babylon/ which is now 
the only place where balsam is found. There is nothing 
remarkable in the trees, but if they be grown by any save 
Christians they bear no fruit, and will be doomed to 
barrenness for ever. There are also cedar-trees, which 
bear a great fruit, as big as a man's head, but somewhat 
oblong. 1 his fruit hath three savours — to wit, one in the 
rind, which is bitter ; one beneath the rind in the flesh, 
which is insipid ; and one in the kernel, which is acid. 
And you must know that the cedar of Lebanon is an 
exceeding tall tree, but bears no fruit ; but the cedar of the 
sea-coast is small, and bears fruit. There also is a sort of 
fig-tree, which bears its fruit not among its leaves, but on 
its trunk alone. 

XXIII. The names of the cities and places have gradu- 
ally been altered because of the changes of the nations who 
at divers times have dwelt in the land. Jerusalem was 
first called Jebus, afterwards Salem, wherefore it was called 
Jerusalem, and afterwards Jerosolyma. After this it was 
called Elya, from Elia,^ the Roman who afterwards rebuilt 
it, after its destruction by Titus, on the place where it now 
stands. Ebron was first called Arbe, then Cariathiarim, 
then Ebron, then Abaram, because Abraham was buried 
there. Ascalon, which was first called Philistim, was a city 
of the Philistines, Gaza hath always been so called. What 
is now called St. George's was called Lidda. Caesarea was 
first called Dor, then Strato's Tower, and is now called 
Caesarea in honour of Caesar. Caifa was first called 
Porfiria.^ Aeon was afterwards called Ptolemais. Tyre 
hath ever been so called. It was once a noble city, wherein 
Agenor reigned, and from whence Dido came. Sidon is 

1 Cairo. 

2 Aelius Hadrianus. 

^ It is erroneously called Porphyria by J. de Vitry. 



36 ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 

now called Sagitta. Sarepta is now called Saffera. Beth- 
lehem was first called EfTrata. Neapolis was first called 
Sichar. Sebastia was first called Samaria. Machomeria 
was first called Luza, and afterwards Bethel. That which 
now is called Belinas was first called Paneas, and after- 
wards Caesarea Philippi. 

XXIV. Among other wonders we must not be silent 
about this, that at Joppa, on the sea-beach, there is a rock 
Adam,i whereunto an exceeding great, nay, an infinite, 
multitude of the fishes called salmon resort in summer- 
time, bearing long yellow lines upon their backs, and after 
kissing the stone, as though it were a holy place, depart 
swiftly. The fishermen of that land declare that when the 
Lord bade St. James go into Galilee, St. James answered, 
- 1 will go if that rock will go with me.' Then the rock 
broke in two, and one half went into Galilee, where it is 
visited by pilgrims at this day, and is called St. James's 
Pitcher, while the other half remained here. 

Furthermore, the land of Jerusalem hath a Latin king, 
whom the patriar .... 

Dr. Thomas, who has given a complete edition of this 
fragment, has also the following extract : 

' Of the king and his barons. Of the grandees and 
barons. Of the cities belonging to the kingdom. Of the 
Prince of Antioch and the Count of Tripoli. Of the divers 
kinds of pagans, the Jews, Sadducees, Samaritans, Assassins, 
Bedouins.' 

1 Lapis qiiidam Adam. Compare Odoricus de Foro Julii, in 
Laurent's edition, p. 156. - 'Et ibi ' (at Joppa) 'est portus communis 
peregrinorum tendencium ad sanctam civitatem Jerusalem. Et ibi 
est petra quae dicitur Lomson (?) sancti Jacobi.' — Peregrinatores medii 
2dv'\ quatuor, J. C. M. Laurent. Lipsias, J. C. Heinrichs, 1864. 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM VI. {PSEUDO BEDA). yj 

ANONYMOUS PILGRIM VI. (PSEUDO BEDA). 
{\2th century.) 
HERE BEGINNETH BEDA'S ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND. 
1. Let us make our start from Chebron, which is Ebron,^ 
the capital city. Ebron was of old a capital city of the 
Philistines, and a dwelling-place of giants ; it was in the 
tribe of Juda, and was a city of priests, and a city of 
refuge. Ebron was built in the field wherein the Almighty 
Disposer of Events moulded our first father. PLbron is 
called Cariatharbe, which in Greek and Saracenic means 
the city of four, for cariath in Greek means ' city,' and 
arba in Saracenic means 'four,' because four worshipful 
men were buried in the double cave there — to wit, the first 
man Adam, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, together with 
their four wives : our mother Eve, Sara, Rebecca, and 
Leah. Ebron stands near the Vale of Tears.- The Vale 
of Tears is so called because therein Adam wept for his 
son Abel for a hundred years, and therein at the warning 
of an angel he knew his wife Eve and begat Seth, from 
whose seed Christ was born. 

Two miles from Ebron is the sepulchre of Lot, Abraham's 
nephew. 

In Ebron is that neld^ whose earth is red, which earth is 
dug up and eaten by the inhabitants, and is exported to 
Egypt for sale, and bought as an exceeding precious drug, 
because it is said to be true that of this earth Adam, the 
first man, was made. The aforesaid field, however widely 

^ For all this account of Hebron compare Fetellus's ' Description of 
the Places round Jerusalem,' and also John of Wiirzburg, ch. xxi., 
Theoderich, ch. xxxiv. 

2 J. of W., ch. xxi. Fabri (ii. 414) says that it was a cave, which 
he was shown at Hebron. 

3 See Fabri, vol. ii., part 2, p. 41 1 ; and Tobler's notes to Theoderich, 
ch. xxxiv. 



38 ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 

and deeply it be dug into, yet by God's ordinance will be 
found at the end of the year to be filled up as before. 

Near Ebron is the Mount Mambre, at whose foot grows 
the terebinth-tree, which is called dyrbs} that is to say, 
ilex or oak, beneath which Abraham dwelt for a long time. 
It was here that he saw the three angels and worshipped 
one ;'^ that he offered them hospitah'ty to the best of his 
power, comforted them, and fed them, wherefore according 
to the old way of belief he was called just.^ 

The aforesaid ilex was standing up to the time of the 
Emperor Theodosius, by the testimony of Jerome, and 
from it grew the one which is seen there and reverenced 
at the present day. This tree, albeit dry, yet hath medicinal 
virtue, as is proved by this, that whoso carries a piece 
thereof with him when riding, his horse doth not stumble. 
It was to Ebron that Caleb and Joshua and their ten com- 
panions first came when they were spying out the Promised 
Land ; and at Ebron they found the children of Anak, the 
tribe of the giants. 

^ Tobler, in his note to Theoderich, ch. xxxiv., says : ' This word, 
with slight varieties of spelling, occurs in Felellus, John of Wiirzburg, 
Odoricus, and Sir J. Maundevilie. Probably it is a corruption of the 
Arab word duleb or dulb^ meaning oak.' Sir C. Wilson conjectures 
that it may be connected with the Gr. hpvq. See John of Wiirzburg, 
ch. xxi. 

2 See Sir John Maundevilie, ch. vi. ; John of Wiirzburg, ch. xxi. 

3 Unde pri7na credendi via dichis est Justus. These words apparently 
are quoted from what Tobler has named 'The old Compendium,' 
which is quoted by most of the pilgrims. Unfortunately, I have 
omitted them in my version of John of Wiirzburg, where the Latin 
Unde et prima credettdi via dicta est is meaningless, or nearly so. I 
have not met with these words elsewhere, but the incident, with the 
comment that Abraham 'saw three and worshipped one,' may be found 
in Theoderich, ch. xxxv. (see Tobler's note), Poloner, Fetellus, p. 8, 
Abbot Daniel, p. 44, Sir John Maundevilie, etc. Probably the sentence 
which followed this dealt in some fashion with the doctrine of the 
Trinity, and, being unintelligible to copyi-ts, became corrupted into 
its present form. 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM VI. {PSEUDO BEDA). 39 



In Ebron David reigned for seven years and a half. 

11. Ten miles from Ebron, toward the east, is the Lake 
of Asphalt, which also is called the Dead Sea — dead, 
because it receives nothing living. It belongs to the devil, 
wherefore, by his guidance, those four most unhappy cities, 
Sodom, Gomorrah, Seboim, and Adama, which went on in 
their wickedness, were burned up with a flood of sulphurous 
file and were sunk in that lake. 

The interpretation^ of Sodoma is 'silent flock' or 'blind- 
ness ' ; that of Gomorrah, * fear ' or ' sedition of the people ' ; 
that of Seboim, ' sea ' or ' seaport ' ; that of Adama, 'de- 
sirable.' Above the Lake of Asphalt, as thou goest up 
into Judah, is Segor. Segor has three names : it is called 
Bala, which is, being interpreted, 'swallowed up'; Zoar, 
which is a Syrian name ; it is called Bakzoar by mixing 
the Syrian and Hebrew together ; and it is called Segor, 
which is, being interpreted, 'a little one.' Segor was saved 
by the prayers of Lot from being burned or swallowed by 
the waters, and may be seen at this day. As thou goest 
out from Segor Lot's wife was turned into a pillar of salt, 
the traces whereof may be seen to this day. On the beach 
of the aforesaid sea much alum and much catranum- is 
found by the inhabitants and is gathered by them, and out 
of the sea is drawn bitumen, which is called Jews' pitch, 
and is useful for some kinds of work. Segor is now called 
'the town of palms ' by the people of the country. The 
Lake of Asphalt divides Judaea from Arabia. 

^ For all these versions of the names, compare Fetellu?, p. 11, in 
this series. 

2 Theoderich, ch. xxxv. : 'alumen, quod Saraceni catranum vocant ;' 
so that it seems that there was no difference. This chapter of our 
author occurs nearly in the same words in Theoderich. Katran, Low 
Latin catranum^ Fr. goiidron. Compare Wright's note to Sir John 
Maundeville, ch. ix. ; ' Early Travels in Palestine,' in Bohn's Antiquarian 
Library. 



40 ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 

III. When the children of Israel came into Arabia it 
was a pathless and waterless wilderness. In it the Lord 
kept Mis people Israel for forty-two stations^ and for forty 
years ; meanwhile their clothes did not w^ear out, and He 
fed them with the dew of heaven and manna for each of 
them according to their desire, and meat for their lust.^ 
. I have set down the tale and the meaning of these 
stations here in this book ; it is through them that the 
true Hebrew, who is eager to make his way from earth to 
heaven, must pass, and leaving behind him the Egypt of 
this world, enter into the land of promise and his heavenly 
home. 

Forty-two Stations, 

The first station was Ramesses/ a city of Egypt, wherein 
Israel gathered together ; it entered the wilderness on the 
second day after Easter in the sight of the Egyptians, 
whom they {sic) had very cleverly spoiled of their vessels 
of gold and silver. Ramesses is, being interpreted, 'con- 
fusion ' or ' thunder/ 

The second station is Succoth, which means ' booths ' or 
* tabernacles.' 

The third station is Etham in the wilderness, where the 
Lord first ministered to the wants of His people,* a pillar of 
fire by night, that they might see all that they wanted to 
do, and a cloud by day to hide and to shade them. Etham 
means * bravery' or 'perfection.^ _^ ^_ 

^ So 1 have thought it best to translate 7na?tsio. The exact meaning 
of the word in mediaeval times was a place on a post-road where 
travellers could eat and sleep, whereas mutatio only meant a place 
^ where they changed horse?, Mansio therefore signifies a resting- 

^-'^pface, a permanent encampment, ____. 

^ The words, which are corrupt, seem to be a paraphrase of Ps. 
Ixxviii. 

^ Ex. xii. 37, 

•* De Vogiie reads miinstravit^ 'showed His people.' 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM VI. (PSEUDO BE DA). 41 

Mara was the fourth station, three days after the crossing 
of the Red Sea. Mara means 'bitterness.' 

The fifth station was Pi-hariroth, which is near Belsefon,^ 
and is, being interpreted, 'the house of the north wind.* 

The sixth station was Elim, where they found the twelve 
wells and the seventy palm-trees. 

The seventh station was again beside the Red Sea, where 
a gulf runs out of the same. 

The eighth station was in the Wilderness of Sin, through 
which one goes even to Mount Sinai. Sin means ' bush ' 
or ' hatred.' 

The ninth station was at Delpheta,^ which means 
' beating.' 

The tenth station was at ' Haylus,'^ which means 
'leaven.' It was in thjs wilderness that Israel murmured 
through hunger, and took quails in the evening and manna 
in the morning. 

The eleventh station was Rephidim,^ which means ' the 
overthrow of the brave' or 'the loosing of hands.' Here 
a fountain of water burst forth from Horeb for the thirsty 
people. Here Joshua overthrew Amalek ; here Jethro 
came to Moses ; here the people murmured against God, 
and while Moses was away made a golden calf and wor- 
shipped it. 

The twelfth station was the Wilderness of Sinai ; this 

word is, being interpreted, ' bush.' At this station Moses 

vv^ent up to God in Mount Sinai, and here the Lord came 

down to him and gave him the Law written with His own 

finger on tables of stone hewn out of that same mount. 

Moses there accomplished a fast of forty days and forty 

nights. At this station the tabernacle was made. - 

^ Baal-zephon. Compare St. Silvia, p. 21. 

2 Fetellus has Delphecaj Dophkah, 'knocking' or 'overdriving.' 

2 Fetellus has Alusj Alush, ' a crowd.' 

* Rephidim, ' rests ' or ' stays.' 



42 ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 

On this rnount they were taught what kinds of victims 
to offer, what kinds of vessels to use in sacrifice, what 
vestments should be used by the priests, and what cere- 
monies^ should be pcrftrmed by the priests and Levites. 
Here Moses anointed Aaron the chosen as priest, and 
bedecked him with the breastplate of judgment and the 
ephod, wherefore he was the first to be called Christ ; that 
is, 'anointed.' Here the people and the Levites were 
numbered and were divided into their several tribes. Here 
also the gifts of the princes were written down,^ and two 
silver trumpets^ for breaking up the camp were made. 
There the unclean,* who could not eat the Passover in the 
first month, were ordered to meet and do so in the second. 
There the Nazarenes were forbidden to drink wine or 
strong drink, and to eat dried grapes or vinegar made 
of wine. Here lepers and they who had unclean issues 
were driven out of the camp. Here the Levites were 
ordered to serve the tabernacle from their twenty-fifth 
year, and to guard the vessels from their fiftieth year. 
Here two silver trumpets were made, at whose sound 
Israel should make ready for battle. 

The thirteenth station was at ' the graves of lust,' where 
Israel became weary of heavenly food, and longed for the 
flesh-pots of Egypt, wherefore fire suddenly devoured many 
of them. There the Lord came down in a cloud upon the 
seventy chosen elders, and took of the spirit that was upon 
Moses, and gave it unto the seventy elders.^ 

The fourteenth station was Aseroth, where Aaron the 
priest, and Miriam his sister, took offence at their brother 
Moses, casting in his teeth that he had married a strange 
woman ; wherefore Aseroth means ' offence.' 

^ Exod. xxviii. passim. ^ Num. vii. 

^ Num. X. * Num. ix. 6^ sg'g'. 

^ Num. xi. 21-25. 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM VI. (PSEUDO BE DA). 43 



The fifteenth station is Rethma,^ which means * noise ' or 
' rushing.' From hence the twelve spies were sent to the 
Promised Land, and brought back the bunch of grapes from 
thence. Heie Dathan and Abiram, the sons of Korah, rose 
against Moses and Aaron, and the earth opened and 
swallowed them up, they and their families and all their 
tents, their furniture, and their wealth. Here Aaron's rod 
bore fruit and leaves. Here the man was put to death by 
the people for gathering sticks on the sabbath day. 

The sixteenth station was Rimmon parez, which in Latin 
means * the dividing of a pomegranate.' 

The seventeenth station was Lebna, which is, being 
interpreted, ' whitening.' 

The eighteenth station was Rechsa, which is translated 
' bridles.' 

The nineteenth station was Celatha, which is, being 
interpreted, ' church.' 

The twentieth station was at Mount Sepher, which isj 
being interpreted, * beauty' ; that is to say, ' Christ.' 

The twenty-first station was Arada, which means 
' miracle.' 

The twenty-second station was Maceloth, which means 
' in the assembly ' ; that is, ' in the church.' 

The twenty-third station was at Taath, which is, being 
interpreted, * fear.' 

The twenty-fourth, at Thase, which means * malice '^ or 
* pasture.' 

The twenty-fifth, Methca, which is translated * sweetness.' 

The twenty-sixth station was Asmola, which in Latin 
means * hastening.' 

^ Rithmah, from retem^ a broom bush. See Fetellus, p. 17, where 
there is a version differing but little from this, of the stations on the 
way from Egypt to the Promised Land. 

^ Malitia. Var. lect., militia^ military service. 



44 ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 

The twenty-sevenlh station was Aseroch, which is, being 
interpreted, ' chains' or ' punishment.' 

The twenty-eighth station was Baneiachan, which is 
translated by ' the children of need ' or * of noise.'. 

The twenty-ninth station was Mount Gadgad, which 
means * messenger/ or ' girding,' or 'circumcision.' 

The thirtieth station was Gabatath, which is, being inter- 
preted, * goodness ' ; that is, ' Christ' 

The thirty-first station is Ebron, which means * passing.' 

The thirty-second station is Asiongaber, which is trans- 
lated by ' a man's timber.' 

The thirty-third station was in the Wilderness of Sin, 
which is Cades, also called Cadesh-barnea. ' Syn^ is, 
being interpreted, ' holy,' by (the figure called) antiphrasis, 
even as /ucus, a grove, is so called qm'a minime liiceat, 
because it doth not shine. 

Here Miriam, the sister of Moses and Aaron, died and 
was buried. Here Moses offended God by the word of 
contradiction which he spake, wherefore he was forbidden 
to cross over Jordan. Here, being troubled in mind at 
the murmuring of the people, he twice doubtingly struck 
the rock, as though God could not bring forth water 
from the rock, and two brooks now flow from thence, and 
water that part of Arabia. 

The thirty-fourth station was at the Mount Hor in the 
land of Edom, which 'mount by God's command Aaron 
went up, and there he died in the place which is called 
Beroth, and was buried in Mount Hor. He was succeeded 
in his rank as high-priest by Eleazar his son. But when 
Akaan heard that Israel was drawing near, they fought a 
battle on the spot where the spies had frightened the 
people by telling them of the size and number of the 
children of Anak. Israel was overthrown, but they 

^ This seems to imply that English was the writer's native tongue. 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM VI. (PSEUDO DEDA). 45 

fought again, and the conqueror was beaten in the same 
place where he had conquered before, and was put to 
flight. 

The thirty-fifth station was Selmona. 

The thirty-sixth station was Fynon. These two 
stations are not found in the course of the history. In 
them, after Aaron's death, Israel murmured against the 
Lord and against Moses, loathed manna, and therefore 
was bitten by serpents. 

The thirty-seventh station was Obeth, which is translated 
by ' magician ' or * prophetess.'^ 

The thirty-eighth station was Ebar,^ in the land of Moab, 
which means ' heaps of stones passing away.' 

The thirty-ninth station was Dybongad, where Israel did 
battle with Sihon King of the Amorites and with Og King 
of Bashan. Sihon is, being interpreted, 'temptation of the 
eyes' ; Og means 'shutting up ' ; Basan means * confusion.' 

The fortieth station, after Dybongad, was at Helmon 
Deblathaim, which is translated by *^ contempt ' or ' shame 
of streets.' Close by, toward Jericho, is the place Thafon, 
where Moses wrote Deuteronomy. Here also is the place 
Cademoth, from which Moses sent ambassadors to Sihon 
King of the Amorites. 

The forty-first station is Mount Abarim, which is over 
against Nebo. Mount Abarim means the 'mount of those 
who pass awa}^,' and here Moses died, and was honoured 
by the Lord with burial there, albeit his sepulchre is 
nowhere to be seen. He was succeeded in the office of 
leader by Joshua the son of Nun, wherefore he was the 
first to be called Jesus. 

The forty-second station was in the plain country of 

1 Phy tones ^ a corruption Ci{ pythonissa. See Jerome, ad loc. 
^ These two stations, Ebar and Obeth, are given in Fetellus in 
reverse order, Fetellus spells it ' Oboth.' 



46 ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 

Moab, on the banks of the Jordan, near Jericho, where they 
pitched their tents, from the house of the wilderness, even 
unto Bethsarathaim on Mount Moab. While the people 
abode here it was cursed by the divine Balaam, whom 
Balak had hired for a price, from above Karnaim, upon 
Mount Moab, but his curses were turned into blessings. 
Now, Balaam sat upon the ass, and when the ass saw the 
angel of the Lord standing before her with an unsheathed 
sword, she spoke to him by miracle. The aforesaid cave of 
Karnaim is in Mount Moab. This mount, because of its 
exceeding steep descent, is called 'cut off.' In the afore- 
said plain, Balak, by the advice of Balaam, set women in a 
house, and built altars before the doors thereof, to the end 
that Israel might come thither to sacrifice to idols, and 
might commit fornication with the daughters of Moab, and 
be deceived. But Phineas the zealous priest stabbed Zambri 
and his whore together with a dagger, that he might turn 
away the wrath of God. Here the people were numbered for 
a second time, and the Levites also. From hence the people 
went out to battle against the Midianites. Balaam died. 
At the approach of the children of Israel, the waters of 
Jordan turned back and stood on a heap before the ark of 
the Lord's covenant, until all of them had passed over. 
After this, Reuben and the half-tribe of Manasseh, as they 
had many beasts round about Jordan, were the first to 
enter into possession, were brought as guests by Joshua 
into the Promised Land, to Gilgal, where they set up the 
tabernacle of the Lord together with the tents of Israel 
. . . Q) After this Israel was warned not to bring any 
idols into the Holy Land, or to have any therein. Galgala 
is called * rolling away ' or ' unveiling.' After this the tribe 
of Judah took Judaea, and the tribe of Benjamin occupied 
it together with them. They had already overthrown 
Jericho, not by fear of the sword, of stroke of battering- 



ANON-YMOUS PILGRIM VI. (PSEUDO BEDA) 47 



ram, or of brandished weapon, but its walls fell down after 
the ark of the Lord's covenant had been borne seven times 
round about it, and none remained alive therein save only 
Rahab and they whom she chose to save. The half-tribe 
of Manasseh and the tribe of Ephraim took Samaria. The 
tribe of Zabulon, the tribe of Naphtali, and the tribe of 
Aser took the upper parts of Galilee, and in like manner 
the other tribes took all the lands of the thirty-two kings 
between Philistia and Idumaea. 

Three miles from Jericho, two from the Jordan, is Beth- 
aglah, which is, being interpreted, * the place of turning,' 
because there his sons and his household circled round 
about the body of Jacob after the manner of mourners, as 
they were bringing him from Egypt to Ebron. In the 
wilderness above Jericho, in the tribe of Judah, is Engaddi, 
where David hid himself. Engaddi, near the Dead Sea, is 
said to be the country from whence opobalsam used to be 
brought, and it is said to have grown here, wherefore it was 
called * the vines of Engaddi.' Near Jericho, not far from 
Galgala, is Emechachor, which is, being interpreted, ' the 
valley of Achor ' — that is, of disorder and of crowds — where 
Achor was stoned to death for having taken the accursed 
thing. Beyond Old Jericho, and on the east side thereof, 
is the aforesaid Galgala, where Joshua a second time cir- 
cumcised the people and kept the Passover. Here manna 
failed the children of Israel, and they used wheaten bread. 
In this place also they set up the stones which they had 
brought out of Jordan, and here the tabernacle of the 
covenant stood for a long time. Above the country of the 
Lake of Asphalt is Save,i ^n ancient city, wherein once 

1 In A.V. Shaveh. Gen. xiv. 5 : 'And in the fourteenth year came 
Chedoilaomer, and the kings that v^ere with him. and smote the 
Rephaims in Ashterolh Karnaim, and the Zuzims in Ham, and the 
Emims in Shaveh Kiriathaim.' Verse 17 : 'And the King of Sodom 
went out to meet him after his return from the slaughter of Chedor- 



48 ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 

dwelt a strong people who were overthrown by Chedor- 
laomer. 

In Arabia, between Abarim and Hor, is Monreal, which 
that brave lion, Baldwin of Bouillon, the first Count of 
Edessa, and afterwards the first Prankish King of Jerusalem, 
made into a strong castle, that it might bring Arabia into 
the hands of the Christians, and be a bulwark of the 
kingdom of David. To the southward, in Arabia, is Mount 
Pharan.^ 

Arabia joins Idumaea in the land of Bostron/ which is 
Bozor, from whence came Barachel the Buzite.^ 

There is another Bozor in the mountains of Idumaea, 
whereof Isaiah saith, 'Who is he that cometh from Edom, 
and in dyed garments from Bosra ?' Beyond Bostron, to 
the south, looking towards Damascus, is the country of 
Trachonitis or Ituraea, whose tetrarch was Philip, according 
to the Gospel. 

Idumaea joins Sedrach,* which is below Syria. The 
head (chief city) of Syria is Damascus.^ Damascus has 
three names, which are Damascus, Aram, and Arphat. 
Damascus is the venerable capital city of Syria. Lebanon 
divides Sedrach and Phoenicia. In Phoenicia is Sor,^ that 
is to say, Tyre, the most glorious metropolis of the Phoe- 
nicians, which, as the Syrians tell us, would not receive 
Christ as He walked along the parts by the seashore, and 
which, according to the testimony of the sacred page, hath 

laomer and of the kings that were with him, at the valley of Shaveh, 
which is the king's dale. 

1 A.V. Paran. Gen. xiv. 6; xxi. 2i ; Deut. i. i ; xxxiii. ii ; 
Num. X. 12 ; xiii. i, 4, 27 ; i Sam. xxv. i ; i Kings xi. 8 ; Habak. iii. 3. 

2 Tobler's note to Theoderich, ch. xlv. 

3 Job xxxii. 2. 

* This refers to Zech. ix. i, where Hadrach is rendered "Sidpax in 
LXX. See John of Wiirzburg, xxv. mz'L 

^ Compare John of Wiirzburg, p. 61. 
- ^ Fetellus, p. 49 ; Theoderich, p. 73. 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM VI. {PSEUDO BED A). 49 



\ 



giv^en so many martyrs to God, whose number He alone 
knoweth.^ Tyre contains the tomb of Origen. Before the 
city of Tyre there is a great marble stone, whereon Christ 
sat.^ This stone remained untouched from His time down 
to that when the Gentiles were driven out of the Holy City ; 
but af erwards pieces were broken off it by the French 
and the Venetians. A chapel belonging to the Saviour's 
church has been built over what remains of this stone. 
Apollonius was King of Tyre at the time when Antiochuf; 
reigned at A^ntioch. Reu and Hiram were kings of Tyre 
when Solomon reigned at Jerusalem. Alexander the Great 
took Tyre by joining its walls to the mainland, for at that 
time the sea flowed all round about it. The patriarch 
Wariamendus, of blessed memory, by the grace of God 
preventing him, bravely besieged Tyre, with the help of the 
Venetians, by sea and by land in the time of the Prankish 
kingdom, and took it, thus glorifying and extending the 
kingdom of David. 

Eight miles from Tyre towards the east, by the sea- 
shore, is Sarphen, which is Sarepta of the Sidonians. Here 
once dwelt Elijah the prophet, and raised up the son, to 
wit, Jonah, of the widow who had given him hospitality 
and kindly comforted and fed him. 

Six miles from Sarphe is Sidon, whence came Dido, 
who built Carthage in Africa. Sidon is, being interpreted, 
* seeking after sorrow ;' Tyre, * trading.' It was from these 
parts of Tyre and Sidon that the Canaanitish woman 
came to Jesus when He walked in those parts, and talked 
vi^ith Him, and Jesus talked with her. In the mountains 
of Sidon and Sarepta is the town of Gethacofer,^ whence 
came the prophet Jonah. 

Sixteen miles from Sidon is Beyrout, an exceeding rich 

1 Fetellus, p. 50. 

2 Compare Phocas, p. 10 ; F'etellus, p. 50 ; and John of Wurzburg, p. 63. 

3 Gath-hepher. 



50 ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 



city. At Beyrout there is a statue of our Saviour, made 
by Nicodemus with his own hands. When, not long after 
Christ's Passion, this statue was jestingly crucified by some 
Jews to do Him insult, there came forth from it blood 
and water, whereupon many believed in Him who was 
crucified indeed. Moreover, whosoever was anointed with 
that which flowed from the statue was healed of whatso- 
ever disease he was suffering from.^ 

IV. Damascus was built by Eliezar, Abraham's servant, 
on the place where Cain slew his brother Abel, wherefore 
the word Damascus means ' draught of blood,' or * kiss of 
blood.' Damascus is in Syria. Syria is, being interpreted, 
' lofty ' or * wet.' In the country about Damascus dwelt Esau, 
who was also called Seyr, ' the hairy man ' ; Edom, * the red 
man,' or ' the red-haired man.' Esau means ' breaking.' 

A part of Syria is called at this day Idumaea, after 
Edom, which is mentioned in the psalm * Over Edom 
will I cast out my shoe.' It is also called Edom, where- 
fore Isaiah saith, * Who is this that cometh from Edom, 
and in dyed garments from Bosra ?' In Idumaea is Mount 
Seir, beneath which lies Damascus. In Seyr dwelt 
Choreus,2 who was slain by Chedorlaomer. In the land 
of Idumaea, two miles from the Jordan, is the river 
Jabbok, which Jacob forded when he was coming back 
from Mesopotamia, and where he wrestled with the angel, 
who changed his name from Jacob into Israel. 

Two miles from Damascus is the place where Christ 
appeared to Saul, saying : ' Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou 
Me?' at which time an exceeding bright light from heaven 
shone round about Saul. It was at Damascus that Ananias 

1 This story appears in Fetellus, p. 51 ; Abbot Daniel, p. 55 ; 'The 
City of Jerusalem,' p. 48 ; John of Wiirzburg, p. 63. Theoderich, 
p. 71, tells it at rather greater length, but omits the name of Nico- 
demus. See Fetellus, p. 51, note. 

^ Gen. xiv. 6. 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM VI. (PSEUDO BE DA). j,i 

baptized Saul, giving him the name of Paul ; and it was at 
Damascus that Paul, at his baptism, recovered his sight. 
From the walls of Damascus Paul was let down in a basket 
from a window to escape from the fury of his persecutors. 

Lebanon is, being interpreted, * whiteness,' and is men- 
tioned in Solomon's song : * Come with me from Lebanon, 
my spouse.'^ Beneath Lebanon is Antilebanon, which 
overhangs the country of Damascus, and fences in a great 
part thereof. At the foot of Lebanon rise Abana and 
Pharphar, the rivers of Damascus. 

The river Abana runs through the mountains of Lebanon 
and the plain of Archas,^ and joins the Great Sea near 
the place to which St. Eustachius^ retired after losing his 
wife and children. 

Pharphar runs through Syria to Reblatha, that is, 
Antioch, flows towards the sea past the walls thereof, and 
enters the sea ten miles from that city at the port of Solym. 

St. Luke the Evangelist came from Antioch, wherefore 
he was called a Syrian by nation. PVom Antioch also 
came that root of sin, King Antiochus, and the illustrious 
Antiochus, under whom the seven Maccabees suffered, 
together with their mother* . . . and were buried together 
in Antioch in a venerable and beauteous church dedicated 
in their names. At Antioch St. Barbara suffered, and in 
her honour an admirable church has been built therein, 
adorned with gold and mosaic work, and with many 
marbles of divers colours. At Antioch St. Peter sat 

' Song iv. 8. 

2 See Fetellus, p. 24, note, the City of Jerusalem, p. 50, note. 

3 For St. Eustace, see 'The Golden Legend,' printed by Julian 
Notary at Temple Bar, 1503, p. clxxxvi. ; Theoderich, p. 71 ; 
Fetellus, p. 24. 

4 Here follow the words ' ad August!.' I can make nothing of them. 
Wilbrand of Oldenburg (ed. J. C. M. Laurent, Leipsic, J. C. Heinrichs, 
1864) gives a full account of Antioch, but throws no light on 'Augusti.' 
Neumann offers no suggestion. 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 



enthroned in honour during seven years of his pontificate. 
He was succeeded by St. Euodius, who was succeeded by 
St. Ignatius, who was brought to Rome bound with a 
cord, and died there as a martyr. In Antioch the Christians 
were first so-called ; before this they had been called disciples. 

At the foot of Lebanon rise Jor and Dan, the sources 
from which, at the foot of the mountains of Gilboa,^ the 
Jordan is formed. In the Jordan, three miles from Jericho, 
Christ was pleased to be baptized by His forerunner, at 
the' place where His Father's voice thundered above Him, 
saying : * This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well 
pleased : hear ye Him.^ At this , place the Holy Ghost 
came down upon Christ in the likeness of a dove. In 
Jordan Naaman the Syrian washed seven times at the 
bidding of Elisha, and was cleansed from his leprosy. 
The valley through which the Jordan flows, from the 
mountains of Gilboa to the Lake of Asphalt, is called 
Gorrus.2 This valley is also called Aulon, which is a 
Hebrew word. It is a large valley with flat plains, and 
is fenced in on either side with mountains which extend all 
the way from Lebanon to the wilderness of Paran. Beyond 
Aulon stretches the valley of Scythopolis. Beyond Aulon 
across Jordan is Baal, the city of the children of Reuben. 

In Aulon beyond Jordan is Beelmon, which was built 
by the children of Reuben. In Aulon beyond Jordan is 
Betharan, which was built by the tribe of Gad. 

Jordan is, being interpreted, ' descent,' and divides 
Galilee from the land of Bosron, the chief city of Arabia. 
Dan flows underground almost all the way from its source 
to the plain Medan, where it shows its channel openly. 
This plain Medan is so called because Dan is in the 

1 See Tobler's note to Theoderich, ch. xlv. 

^ El Ghor. AvXuiv. See Tobler's note to Theoderich, ch. xlv. ; 



J. of W., ch. XX. ; Fetelliis, p. 25, note. 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM VI. {PSEUDO BEDA). 53 



midst thereof. In Saracenic an open space is called 
medan} which in Latin means //^/^^ ox forum. Mcdan is 
so called because every summer countless folk, bringing 
with them eveiy thing that can be bought or sold, meet 
together and dwell there, and many Parthian and Arab 
soldiers to defend the people and to feed their flocks in 
these exceeding rich pastures, Medan is compounded of 
Me and Dan ; in Saracenic Me means * water,' and Dan 
* river.' From this plain Dan turns itself into a river, and 
passes through Sueta,^ where the monument of the blessed 
Job still stands, and is revered by the Greeks and Gentiles. 
This Sueta is a part of the land of Uz, from whence the 
blessed Job came. From Sueta came Bildad the Shuhite. 
In Uz is Theman, which is the chief city of Idumaea. 
From Theman came Eliphaz the Temanite. In Uz also 
is the city of Naaman, whence came Zcphar the 
Naamathite. These three were Job's comforters. Dan 
bends round towards Galilee, beneath the city of Cedar, 
near the medicinal baths, flows across the place of thorns, 
and joins Jor. Jor forms a lake not far from Paneas, and 
afterwards forms the Sea of Galilee, which begins between 
Bethsaida and Capernaum. 

V. From Bethsaida came Peter and Andrew, James 
and John, and James the son of Alphaeus. Four miles 
from Bethsaida is Chcrazin, wherein shall be brought up 
Antichiist, the deceiver cf the world. Of Chorazin and 
Bethsaida the Lord said : * Woe to thee, Chorazin, woe to 
thee, Bethsaida.' 

Five miles from Chorazin is that most noble city Cedar, 
whereof is said in the psalm : ' Woe is me that I am con- 
strained ... to have my habitation among the tents of 
Cedar.'^ Cedar means ' in darkness.' 

1 Tobler's note lo Thcoderich, ch. xlv. 

2 See Tobler's note on Theoderich, 229, and John cf Wiirzburg, xxv. 
^ Ps. cxx. 4. Cedar=Gadara. 



54 ANONYMOVS PILGRIMS, 

Capernaum stands at the head of the sea on the right 
hand. This was the city of the centurion whose son Jesus 
healed therein, of whom He said, ' I .have not found so 
great faith in Israel/ The Lord wrought many miracles in 
Capernaum, and often taught in the synagogue. Caper- 
naum is, being interpreted, ' white town,' ' most beauteous 
daughter,' or 'daughter of beauty,' words which describe 
the holy Church, whereunto all those who come down from 
Lebanon, which is the whiteness of virtues, are made 
brighter by her and in her.^ 

Two miles from Capernaum is the way down from that 
mount, where the Lord preached to the multitude and taught 
and instituted His Apostles. Here also He healed the leper. 
A mile from that way down is the place where He fed five 
thousand men with five loaves and two fishes, wherefore 
that place is called the * Table,'^ as though it were a place 
of dining. Below it lies the place where Christ appeared 
to His disciples after His resurrection, and ate some roasted 
fish with them by the shore of the sea. Across this same 
sea the Lord walked dryshod, when He appeared about the 
fourth watch to Peter and Andrew as they were fishing, 
and there also Jesus said to Peter, when he tried to walk on 
the sea and began to sink, ' O thou of little faith, wherefore 
didst thou doubt ?' Here also at another time, when His 
disciples thought themselves in danger on board of a ship, 
He stilled the sea. On the shore of this sea is the place 
called Gergressa, where Jesus healed those who were tor- 
mented by devils upon a mountain, from which the swine, 
into which the aforesaid devils had entered by His com- 
mands, cast themselves down a stet p place. At the head 
of the sea, in a hollow on the left-hand side, is Genne- 
sareth, a place which breeds a wind that is felt even at 

1 Compare John of Wurzburg, ch. xxvi., p. 68 in this series. 
^ See Anon. ii. i, note. 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM VI. {PSEUDO BEDA). 55 

this day. From it the Lake of Gennesaret takes its 
name. 

Two miles from Gennezareth is the town of Magdalum, 
from whence came the blessed Mary Magdalen. This is 
the country of Galilee of the Gentiles in the tribes of Judah, 
Zabulon, and Naphtali, from which came Tobias. In the 
upper parts of this Galilee were the twenty cities which 
King Solomon gave for a present to his friend Hiram, King 
of Tyre. Two miles from Magdalum is the city Cinnereth, 
which was called Tiberias after Tiberius Caesar, and which 
Jesus frequented in His youth. This city gives its name to 
the Lake of Tiberias. Four miles from Tiberias is the city 
of Bethulia, whereof was Judith, the good widow, who to 
save her people craftily slew the Babylonian Holofernes 
with her dagger in his own tent, and bore his head and his 
silken canopy, interwoven with gold and gems, back to the 
city in her hands. Four miles from Tiberias toward the 
south is Dothami (sic), where Joseph saw his brethren feeding 
their flocks, and whom they, out of hatred, sold there to the 
Is'imaelites. Dothami means ' fodder,' or the green part 
thereof. 

VL Twelve miles from Tiberias is Nazareth, a city of 
Galilee, and the Saviour's own city, for that therein He was 
conceived and brought up. Nazareth is, being interpreted, 
' flower ' or * bush,' and not without cause, seeing that 
therein grew the flower with whose fruit the world is filled, 
that flower the Virgin Mary, of whom the Archangel 
Gabriel announced in Nazareth that the Son of the Most 
Highest should be born, saying, ' Hail, Mary, full of grace ; 
the Lord is with thee.' To him Mary answered, ' Behold the 
handmaid of the Lord ; be it unto me according to thy word.* 

Two miles from Nazareth is the city of Sepphoris, on the 
way which leads to Acre. From Sepphoris came St. Anne 
the mother of the mother of Jesus. Three miles from 



56 ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 

Nazareth, two miles from Sepphoris toward the east, in the 
tribe of Assur, is Cana of Galilee/ whence came Philip, he 
to whom the Saviour said, * Philip, he that seeth Me seeth 
My Father also'; and likewise Nathaniel, of whom the Lord 
said, * Behold an Israelite indeed, in whom there is no guile.' 
It was at Cana of Galilee that Jesus, when sitting with 
His mother at a marriage feast, turned water into wine. 
In Nazareth there is a little well, from which in His child- 
hood Jesus used to draw water for the use of His mother 
and of Himself. A mile from Nazareth toward the south 
is the place called * the brow of the hill,' down which (His 
parents)"^ would have cast Jesus when He was a young man, 
because they were jealous of His wisdom, but He passed 
through the midst of them and vanished in a moment. 
Four miles from Nazareth toward the south is Mount 
Tabor, whereon, in the presence of His disciples, Peter, 
John and James, Jesus was transfigured, and Moses and 
Elias with Him. Here also the Father's voice was heard, 
and His majesty shone round about Jesus, saying in 
thunder, * This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well 
pleased.' He also forbade Peter, John and James to tell 
any man what they had seen, until the Son of man should 
rise from the dead. Here also Peter said, * Let us make 
here three tabernacles, one for Thee, one for Moses, and one 
for Elias.' Two miles from Tabor toward the east is Mount 
Hermon, whereof the psalm saith, * Tabor and Hermon 
shall rejoice in Thy name.' There is also another Mount 
Hermon in Idumaea, near to Lebanon. As he was going 
down from Mount Tabor, Abraham met Melchisedec,^ the 
l)riest and King of Salem, returning from the slaughter of 

^ See Anon. v. i., ch. xii,, note. 

2 'Parentts' is erased from the MS., but the 'p' and 's' are still 
plainly to be seen (W. Neumann). 

3 Compare Theoderich, c!\ xlv. ; Willis, ' Holy Sepulchre,' p. io8. 



ANOMYMOUS PILGRIM VL {PSEVDO BEDA). 57 

Amalek, and offered him bread and wine, which prefigured 
the offering made at the altar of Jesus Christ under grace. 

Melchisedec means 'just king.' Two miles from Tabor 
is the city of Nairn, at whose gate Jesus raised the widow's 
son to life. Above Nairn is Endor. On the plain of Nairn, 
between Kndor and Tabor, is Cadumim, which is the brook 
Kishon, on whose banks Deborah the prophetess, with the 
advice and guidance of Barak, the son of Abinoe, overthrew 
the Idumaeans, what time Sisera was slain by Jael, the wife 
of Heber the Kenite. Barak chased Zeb and Zeba and 
Salmanna across Jordan and slew them with the sword, 
and their army fell at Endor ; wherefore the psalm saith, 
* Who perished at Endor, and became as the dung of the 
earth/ Five miles from Naim is the city of Ezrael, that is, 
Zaraim. Ezrael means * God hath sown,' and thereof was 
Jezebel, that most wicked queen, who took away Naboth's 
vineyard, and who also for her evil deeds was thrown down 
from the top of her palace and died. Her monument 
remains, and may be seen at this day. Near Jezrael is the 
plain of Megiddo, where King Josiah^ was overthrown and 
slain by the King of Samaria, and was taken from thence to 
Sion and buried there. On the mountains of Gilboa is the 
village which is called Zelbus.^ 

Two miles from Gilboa is Scythopolis, a chief city of 
Galilee, which is Bethsan, the bouse or city of the sun, 
over whose walls they hanged Saul's head. From Naulon 
on the Jordan, eight miles from Bethsan, are Nemmon and 
Bethany,^ wherein St. John baptized, as we read in the 
Gospels. In Galilee is Zaron, whereof Isaiah makes men- 
tion, saying Zaron is in the country of the marshes,* where- 

1 2 Kings xxiii. 29 ; 2 Chron. xxxv. 22-24 ; i Esdras i. 25-31. 

2 See Fetellus in ihis series, p. 31, fin. note. 

3 See Dictionary of ihe Bible, s. v. * Bethabara.' 

Sharon. Cf. Isaiah xxxiii. 9 and xxxv. 2, where, however, I find 



S8. ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 

fore the region between Tabor and Cinereth^ is called 
Zaron. 

Tabor is in the midst of Galilee, and is a tall mount, 
wondrous round. Five miles from Jezrabel is the town 
Geminum ; and between Geninum (st'c) and Mageddo is the 
place Gur,2 where Jehu, King of Israel, slew Ahaziah, King 
of Judah. 

VII. Ten miles from Genninum^ (sic) is Samaria, which is 
also called Sebaste and Augusta, from wlience came Simon 
Magus, and wherein is buried the paranymph and fore- 
runner of the Lord, John the Baptist, who was beheaded 
by Herod beyond Jordan in the castle of Machaerunta, 
near the Dead Sea, and was brought from thence by his 
disciples and buried between P^lisha and Elijah. We are 
told that afterwards his body was dug up by Julian the 
Apostate, burned, and the ashes scattered to the winds, all 
save the head, which had before this been translated to 
Alexandria, whence it was afterwards translated to Con- 
stantinople, and thence to Poitou in France ; and save also 
the forefinger wherewith he had pointed to Jesus as He 
came to be baptized, saying, ' Behold the Lamb of God ; 
behold Him that taketh away the sins of the world.' The 
blessed virgin Thekla brought the forefinger with her into 
the Alps, and there it is kept with the greatest reverence in 
the church of St. Jean de Maurienne.* Samaria is the 

nothing about marohes. Thietmar says : ' Saron distat ab Accon ad 
tria miliaria versus septentrionem.' 

^ ' Two miles from Magdolum is the ciiy of Cynereih, which is 
Tiberias.' — Fetellus, p. 29 in this series. 

'^ * At thegoing up to Gur, which is by Ibleam' (2 Kings ix. 27). See 
Fetellus in this series, p. 32. 

^ Fetellus in this series, p. 32. 

* The translation of this relic is recounted by Gregory of Tours 
(Magna Bib!, vet. patrum. ed. Colon, 1618, Tom. vi., part ii., p. 533), 
in his first book, ' De Gloria Marlyrum,' ch. xiv., but wiihout givmg 
her name, * Nam quaedam mulier de Maurienna urbe progrediens, 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM VI. (PSEUDO BEDA). 59 

name both of the city and of the province. In Saniaria is 
Sunam, whence came the Shunamite woman. Sunam is 
pronounced Sanym. In Samaria is Tersilia, from which 
came Manahen.^ Four miles from Sebaste is NeapoHs, 
which is also called Sichem, from Sichem, the father of 
Emor. It stands between Dan and Bethel, and from 
Sichem that land is called Sichem. Sichem was the city of 
Emor, who ravished Dinah, Jacob's daughter, when she 
was walking in that country just after having returned from 
Mesopotamia. Joseph's bones were brought back from 
Egypt to Sichem and buried there. Near the well at 
Sichem Jeroboam made the two golden calves, which he 
caused to be worshipped by the ten tribes which he had 
perverted and led away with him from Jerusalem. One of 
these calves he set up in Dan, and the other in Bethel. 
Jacob's sons destroyed this city of Sichem and slew Hamor, 
in their sorrow at the adultery of their sister Dinah. 
Sichem is at this day called Neapolis ; that is, * new city.' 
The hamlet of Sychar is without Sichem, near the land 
which Jacob gave to his son Joseph. In it is Jacob's foun- 
tain, which also is the well, beside which, according to the 
Gospel, Jesus sat when weary with His journey and talked 
with the woman of Samaria. On this spot a church is now 
being built. Near Sichem is the terebinth-tree beneath 
which Jacob hid his idols. The Samaritans afifirm that 
above Neapolis stand those two famous mountains, (G)ebal 
on the north, and Gerizim on the south ; but this contention 
is overthrown by Jerome, who declares that they are in the 

ipsius precursoris reliquias expetivit.' Compare the Bollandist life of 
St. Tygria, A. S., June 25. The name Thecla occurs in the Evangelica 
Historia of Petrus Comestor, ch. 75. See also Boll. Act. Sanct, 24 June, 
iv., p. 776. I take the above references from W. Neumann, in the 
' Oesterreichische Vierteljahresschrift fiir Kaiholische Theologie,' 1868. 
See also Fetellus, p. 32, John of Wiirzburg. p. 7, in this series, etc. 
1 Acts xiii, I 



6o ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 



land of promise, over against one another, the one above 
Jericho (that is, Gebal), at the place where, at the bidding 
of Moses, Joshua buil: an ahar to the Lord of unhewn 
stones, and Gerizim near thereto, and he says that the 
voices of men blessing and cursing can be heard from one 
to the other, which cannot be done on the mountains which 
overhang Neapolis. 

Five miles from Sychem, toward the south, is Tham- 
nazare, the ciiy of Joshua, wherein he died, and where his 
sepulchre still remains. A mile from Sychem is Bethel, 
formerly called Luza, which is called 01am in Hebrew. 
Here Abraham dwelt for a long time ; and here Jacob in 
his sleep saw at his head the ladder reaching into heaven, 
and the angels ascending and descending, whereat he 
straightway awoke, ^ and said, ' This place indeed is holy ; 
this is the gate of heaven.' 

He set up a stone for a memorial, poured oil upon the 
stone, and called the name of this place Bethel, which had 
before been Luza. It was at Bethel that at the bidding 
of an angel Abraham was about to sacrifice his son 
Isaac (?). 

Twelve miles from Sychem and four from Jerusalem, 
on the road which leads to Diospolis, is Mount Shiloh and 
the city of Rama, where the ark of the covenant and the 
tabernacle of the Lord abode from the coming of the 
children of Israel even to the times of King David and 
the prophet Samuel. 

I'vv^enty-four miles from Sychem, sixteen from Diospolis, 
sixteen from Ebron, thirteen from Jericho, four from Beth- 
lehem, sixteen from Beersheba, twenty-four from Ascalon, 
as many from Joppa, sixteen from Ramatha, is Jerusalem, 

^ The text has ewangelizans j the same word occurs also in Fetellus. 
The reading evigilans, which gives so much better sense, and which I 
have adopted, occurs in John of VViirzburg. 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM VI. (PSEUDO BEDA). 6i 

the most holy capital city of Judaea, which is Sion, 
whereof it is said, 'Very excellent things are spoken of 
thee, thou city of God.'^ It is also called Helia, from 
Helius Adrianus, who rebuilt it. 

VIII. Four miles from Jerusalem, to the southward, is 
Bethlehem, whereof it is said, * And thou, Bethlehem, art 
by no means the least among the princes of Judah.'^ it 
is also called Ephratah, wherefore says the psalm,^ ' Lo, we 
heard the same at Ephratah.' Ephrata means * dusty.' 
Bethlehem was the city of Jesse : ' And a flower shall spring 
up from his root/ 

This was the city of David, who was a type of Christ — 
David of the strong arm and ruddy countenance. David 
slew Goliath — Christ slew Satan ; David was of a beauteous 
face — Christ was fairer than the children of men. Bethle- 
hem is, being interpreted, * the house of bread,' and rightly 
so, seeing that from the flower of Nazareth there was 
brought forth therein the fruit of the vine from the Virgin 
Mary, to wit, the Son of the living God, who is the Bread 
of angels and the Life of the whole world. At Bethlehem, 
near the place of the Nativity, is the ipianger wherein the 
babe Jesus lay ; wherefore saith the prophet, ' The ox 
knoweth his owner, and the ass his master's crib.' The 
hay from this manger, in which the Babe had lain, was 
taken to Rome by the Empress Helena, and honourably 
bestowed in Great St. Mary's Church.* 

A mile from Bethlehem, toward the north, the star 
shone upon the shepherds when the Lord was born, and 
the angel appeared to them, saying, 'Glory to God in the 
highest, and on earth peace to men of good will' The 
wise men came to Bethlehem from the East, led by a new 
star, to worship Emanuel that was born, and to adore Him 

1 Ps. Ixxxvii. 2. 2 Micah v. 2. 

3 Ps. cxxxii. 6. * S. Maria Maggiore. 



63 ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 

as the King of the angels, offering Him presents of gold, 
frankincense, and myrrh. 

In Bethlehem and the parts adjacent Herod ordered the 
innocents to be slain, and the greater part of them lies 
buried to the southward, three miles from Bethlehem and 
two miles from Tekoa. Two miles from Bethlehem, to- 
ward the wes.t, is Ramale, whereof it is written, ' In Rama 
was a voice heard.' Beneath the church at Bethlehem, not 
far from the Lord's manger, rests the body of St. Jerome. 
The widow Paula and Eustochium, to whom Jerome 
himself wrote a letter, rest in Bethlehem. Four miles 
from Bethlehem, toward the south, is St. Karioth's Church, 
where, when he passed away from this world, his monks, 
whose pious shepherd he had been, died likewise, whereof 
they had had devout foreknowledge from God,^ because 
he had been their clement father — neither did they wish 
to live in the world after him, so fervent was their love 
for him. 

Their several cells^ may be seen in the aforesaid cliurch 

^ These words, which are undoubtedly corrupt, occur in nearly the 
same form in John of Wiirzburg, ch. xix., p. 55. 

2 Co7npagines. I imagine that wooden partitions are meant. See 
Tobler's note to John of Wiirzburg, ch. xix. In the parallel 
passage of John of Wiirzburg I translated compagines 'skeletons,' 
and this I find is W. Neumann's view ; but I am inclined to think that 
the last clause of the sentence proves that the cells of the monks were 
to be seen in the ruins of their monastery, but that they themselves — 
their bodies — were translated to Jerusalem after their death. The 
word compagi7tes is once used metaphorically by Cicero in a sense 
corresponding to 'the bonds of the flesh,' but this I do not think is 
the meaning here. Yet compare Thietmar: ' Item a Bethlehem ad iii 
mil. est monasterium S. Karioth. Qui quum esset abbas in eadem 
ecclesia, et tandem instaret dies resolutionis ejus, monachi ipsius 
videntes ipsum ngonizantem dixerunt ad invicem " Post patrem nos- 
trum superstites nolumus esse super terram '' et omnes in presente 
cum abbate agonizante et monacho agonizabant, et adhuc eo modo 
carnaliter apparent quo in agonia tunc temporis exstiterunt. Sar- 
raceni autem propter invidiam ut ipsos incinerarent ignem super eos 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM VI. (PSEUDO BE DA). 63 

even as they were when they slew themselves on losing 
their father, and they were afterwards translated to Jeru- 
salem, where their bodies lie entire in a mausoleum. 

A mile from Bethlehem, on the road which leads to 
Jerusalem, which is called Kabrata, meaning either 'a. 
bed ' or * heavy,' is the place where Rachel died in child- 
birth after bearing Benjamin, ^nd where she was buried 
by her husband Jacob and now rests. Over her tomb 
Jacob piled up twelve great stones for a memorial of his 
twelve sons. Her tomb, together with these stones, re- 
mains to this day. 

IX. Jerusalem, the glorious metropolis of Judaea, is 
situated in the middle of the world. There David drove 
out Saul, and reigned for thirty years and a half. Of 
David the Lord said, ' I have found a man after My own 
heart.' In Jerusalem was born the prophet Isaiah, who in 
the reign of Manasseh, King of Judah, prophesied more 
clearly than any of the other prophets about Christ, and 
died a martyr, being sawn asunder, because of the hatred 
which he had incurred. In Jerusalem is Mount Moriah, 
on which David saw the angel smiting with his unsheathed 
sword, who had sorely smitten the people of God, and he, 
fearing lest the angel should take vengeance on himself 
and on the city for his sin in numbering the people, fell 
on his face on the earth in true penitence, and, sorrow- 
ing deeply, was heard by the Lord and pardoned. In 
the reign of David there stood on Mount Moriah the 

projecerunt, sed ardor ignis ipsos non tetigit. Qui in crypta pulchra 
ejusdem monasterii repositi sunt.' 

Sir John Maundeville (ch. v'u., z'm'/.) says : 'And two miles from 
Bethlehem, toward the south, is the church of St. Karitot, who was 
abbot there ; for whom they made great lamentation among the 
monks when he died ; and they continue still in mourning in the 
manner that they made their lamentation for him for the first time ; 
and it is very sad to behold.' 



64 ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 

threshing-floor of Oman the Jebusite, he from whom 
David would. have bought it, that he might build a house 
thereon for the Lord, because he had won His forgiveness 
at that place, and the an^el of the Lord had spared him 
and the city and had stayed his hand there. He bought 
it, but was forbidden by the Lord to build thereon, for that 
he was a man of blood. Wherefore he made over his pre- 
parations to his son Solomon, to whom the Lord had 
granted leave that he should build a house for the Lord. 
When his father died, King Solomon built a temple 
thereon in Bethel,^ and an altar, which temple he dedicated 
with incomparable expense and solemnity and devotion, 
begging of the Lord that whenever he asked counsel of 
Him therein he might be heard ; which prayer the Lord 
granted. For this cause the House of the Lord is called 
' the House of Counsel.' This temple, I say, was pro- 
faned and spoiled by Pharaoh Necho, King of Egypt, in 
the time of Rehoboam, the aforesaid Solomon's son. In 
the days of Zedekiah, Nebuchadnezzar, by the hands of his 
chief cook, Nabuzardan, ultimately destroyed both the 
temple and the city, and ordered that whatsoever precious 
things there were in the temple or in the city should be 
taken away and brought to himself in Babylon, and also 
the King Zedekiah and the people. 

Afterwards, in the reign of King Cyrus, the temple was 
rebuilt by Esdras the scribe and Nehemiah the priest, and 
the people were brought back, led by Zerubbabel and 
Joshua, the chief high-priest. The temple was again pro- 
faned and destroyed by Antiochus, and rebuilt in the days 
of the Maccabees. It was also profaned by Pompey, who 
lodged therein when he was fleeing before the face of 
Julius Caesar. Lastly, the temple was destroyed for the 

1 All the other writers who make use of the compenduim read, 
' which is Bethel.' 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM VI. {PSEUDO BED A). 65 



third time, and overthrown down to its very foundations in 
the reign of Titus and Vespasian. 

Of a truth I will essay, as well as I am able, to set forth 
to all readers of this book the truth of this present Bethel 
— albeit no man knows for certain by what prince or in 
whose reign it was restored. Some say that it was rebuilt 
in the reign of the Emperor Constantine by his mother 
Helena, out of reverence for the holy cross which she found 
there. Others say that it was rebuilt by the Emperor 
Heraclius, out of reverence for the Lord^s cross, which he 
had gloriously brought back in triumph from Persia. 
Others say that it was built by the Emperor Justinian ; 
others, that it was built by a certain Admiral^ Memphis in 
honour of Allah Kebir, that is, God most high, which the 
Saracenic inscription thereon proves to us to be most like 
the truth. Wherefore this temple — which is devoutly vene- 
rated by men of all tongues alike — is called the fourth 
temple. It was in the last temple before this that the boy 
Jesus was circumcised on the eighth day after His birth. 
His foreskin^ was presented in the temple in Jerusalem by 

^ The text here runs : ' Alii a quodcDU ammiraldo Memphis^ sub 
honore Alia chiberti, i.e., sumini Dei. Et quoniam ad ipsum colendum 
ab omni lingua reverende 7)eneratur . . . quod verius fuisse sarracena 
superscripcio nobis manifeste declarat . . . prese7ts hoc templum 
{quartujn) predicatur. Cujus in peftultimo octavo die natalis sui, etc. 
I have transposed the sentences quod verius fuisse . . . Et quo- 
niam ... as suggested by Neumann's note. With regard to am- 
miraldo^ Abbot Daniel furnishes the clue, when he says (p. 21), 'As 
for the present church, it was built by a chief of the Saracens named 
Amor (admiralius, amirandus, etc. ; bas-grec a\ir\p et a\it]pai^. ' On fait 
venir ce mot de I'arabe amir al bahr^ — Littre). So ' Omar ' became 
corrupted into 'Amir,' thence into 'Admiral,' and in John of Wiirz- 
burg into ' Emperor' (Imperator). Compare Tobler's note to Theo- 
derich, ch. xvi. 

2 Compare John of Wiirzburg, ch. iii. 

1 Text, ' Nymphis'; Fetellus, ' Memphis.' Possibly Amir al Mamun, 
who repaired the Dome of the Rock. 



66 ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 



an angel from heaven to the King Charles the Great,i and 
was translated by him to Aachen in Gaul, but afterwards 
was translated by Charles the Bald, the son of Louis the 
Pious,^ to a church which he had built in honour of the 
Saviour at Charroux, in Aquitaine, in the province of Poitou, 
which he endowed with exceeding great possessions under 
the rule of monks, where it has been solemnly worshipped 
from that time until the present day. On the day of her 
Purification Jesus was presented by His mother in the 
temple, and was received by the blessed Simeon, who said, 
* Lord, now lettest Thou Thy servant depart in peace, 
according to Thy word,' etc. * O Lord of the Gentiles and 
Glory of Israel.' It was in. the temple that He freed from 
her accusers the woman taken in adultery, saying, ' Let 
him who is without sin cast the first stone at her.' And 
to her He said, ' Woman, go in peace, and sin no more.* 

In the temple He opened the book of Isaiah and ex- 
plained some of it to the Jews. In the temple He praised 
the poor widow's offering, which she cast into the treasury, 
because she had given all that she had. 

In this temple Jesus, while He abode at Jerusalem, used 
to teach the Jews, albeit they were jealous of Him. 

It was on the pinnacle^ of the temple that the devil set 

1 The Emperor Charlemagne. 

'^ Ludovicus pius — Louis le Debonnair. 

^ What was shown as the 'pinnacle' was a gable. This seems in 
most European languages to have been compared to a wing. (Hebrewj 
canaphj Greek, Trr^pov, impvyiov ; Low Latin, pinna, pinnaculum, 
pignaculum; French, pi£-nony EngWsh, pim'on.) The identity of these 
words is proved by the technical term pinion-wheel, common to both 
languages. Compare also Procopius de yEdif. ii. 8 (p. 63 in P. P. T. S.) ; 
the Bordeaux Pilgrim, p. 20, P. P. T. S. ; and the article ' Pinnacle' in 
Smith's Diet, of the Bible. See also clitoq and dkri"iJ.a in Liddell and 
Scott. The following passage from John of Wiirzburg proves, I think, 
that what was shown to the pilgrims as a * pinnacle ' was a gable on 
the city wall : * Super pinnaculum templi, quod reputatur supra latus 
ciruitus (civitatis) habens subtus se fenestras, quasi pinnas vel cinnas, 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM VI. {PSEUDO BEDA). 67 



k 



Jesus, tempting Him, and saying, * If Thou be the Son 
of God, cast Thyself down from hence.' Him the Lord 
answered, * Get thee behind Me, Satan ; thou shalt not 
tempt the Lord thy God.' From this temple St. James 
was cast down, who was the first high-priest under grace in 
Jerusalem. In the temple in Jerusalem Zacharias was told 
by an angel of the birth of his son, John the Baptist. It 
was between the temple and the altar that the martyr 
Zacharias, the son of Barachias, was slain. Upon this altar 
they were wont, under the Old Testament, to sacrifice turtle 
doves and pigeons. The altar has since been made into 
a sundial by the Saracens, and may be seen at this day. 

It was when Peter and John were passing through the 
Beautiful Gate of this temple that he said to the man who 
was carried about, being lame from his mother's womb, 
' What I have, that give I unto thee.' 

In Jerusalem is the sheep-pool, which, in the days of 
Jesus, the angel of the Lord used to stir at certain tinies, 
and the first sick person who entered the water after it had 
been stirred was healed of whatsoever disease he was 
suffering from. 

Probaton in Greek means in Latin * belonging to sheep,' 
because at the sacrifices the entrails of the sheep were 
washed there, and it was red with the blood of the victims 
who were cleansed there. It was before the sheep-pool 
that Je^us restored the sick man to health, saying to him, 
• Take up thy bed and walk.' In the midst of Jerusalem 
Jesus raised the girl from the dead. In Jerusalem Peter 
was imprisoned by Herod, but was loosed by the angel of 
the Lord and carried out of the city through the iron gate, 
which opened to them of itself. 

statuit Jesum diabolus,' etc. — John of Wiirzburg, ch. iv., ' Descriptiones 
terrae sanctae,' Leipzig, 1874. The apex of a gable at the side of the 
temple clearly suits the sense better than the top of a central spire, 
which is what the English reader naturally pictures to himself. 



68 ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 

In the neighbourhood of Jerusalem, in the valley of the 
children of Ennon, is the place Tophet, wherein Israel did 
not blush to worship the idols of the Gentiles. In the 
neighbourhood of Jerusalem, between the place of Tophet, 
the fuller's field, and Aceldama, beneath Solomon's palace 
on the side of Mount Sion, almost in the Valley of 
Jehoshaphat, is the bathing-pool of Siloam, whither Jesus 
sent the blind man whose eyes He had opened, that he 
might wash his eyes therein ; and he went thither, washed, 
and received his sight. Siloam therefore is, being inter- 
preted, 'sent' Siloam, according to the tradition of the 
Syrians, is said to come from Shiloh. The stream of 
Siloam flows silently, because it flows underground. A 
little more than a stone's throw from Siloam is the well 
Rogel. Near Rogel is the stone Zoheleth, where Adonijah 
sacrificed his victims. 

In the Valley of Jehoshaphat St. James was buried, and 
afterwards was translated to Constantinople. In the Valley 
of Jehoshaphat King Jehoshaphat rests beneath a sharp- 
pointed pyramid.^ 

Two miles from Jerusalem, on the road leading to Sichem, 
is Mount Gabaath, in the tribe of Benjamin. 

A mile from Jerusalem, on the side of the Mount of 

Olives, looking towards the Lake of Asphalt, is Bethany. 

By the side of the Mount of Olives, and joining it, is the 

Mount of Offence ; they are divided by the road which leads 

from the Valley of Jehoshaphat through Bethphage to 

Bethany. It is called the Mount of Offence because it was 

on it that King Solomon set up the idol Moloch and 

worshipped it. Bethany is the village where Simon the 

leper often had Jesus for his guest, and Mary and Martha 

devoutly ministered to Him. At Bethany Mary washed 

^ Pyramis. The word is suitable here, and I have translated it 
' pyramid,' but it merely means ' tomb " in medieval Latin. See note i, 
p. 25. 



Anonymous pilgrim vi. {pseudo beda), 69 



Jesus's feet with her tears, wiped them with her hair, 
anointed them with ointment, and obtained the forgiveness 
of her sins. At Bethany He praised Martha and Mary. 
Martha was anxious to serve Him, and Mary was attentive 
to His words. By their tears and prayers He was moved 
to raise up their brother Lazarus, after he had been for 
four days in the tomb. Bethany is, being interpreted, 'house 
of obedience.' 

Bethphage, which also was a village of priests, is ' the 
house of mouths ' or of 'jawbones' ; the Mount of Olives is 
the ' mount of anointing ' or of ' sanctification ' ; the Valley of 
Jehoshaphat is 'the valley of judgment'; Jerusalem is, being 
interpreted, * Vision of peace ' ; Sion is * watch-tower ' or 
* watching.' 

It was by this path that Jesus went up to Jerusalem, 
sitting upon an ass, on the day which is kept holy as Palm 
Sunday. In like manner every Catholic, obeying the counsel 
of the Highest, ought to come into the presence of priests, 
who meditate upon the Word of God, that he may receive 
correction from them and go into the valley of judgment ; 
that is to say, the contrition of true repentance, that he 
may judge himself therein and knock at the eastern door, 
which is Christ, the true East, to the end that he may 
worthily enter into the holy Jerusalem, the heavenly Sion, 
to be adorned with the robe of gladness, and with Him 
continually to reign. 

It was on Mount Sion that Jesus washed His disciples' 
feet, saying, * Do this in remembrance of Me.' On Mount 
Sion Jesus supped with His Apostles. 

Here endeth Beda's description of the Holy Land. 



yo ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM VII. 

{\2th century .) 

DESCRIPTION OF THE HOLY LAND. 

Whosoever would enter Jerusalem, let him ever make for 
the rising sun and enter through St. Stephen's Gate : there, 
without the gate, St. Stephen was stoned ; and within 
Jerusalem let him ask for the places in their proper order. 

In Jerusalem is the Lord's sepulchre. At the entrance 
to the doors of the (Church of the) Sepulchre, without the 
door, is the Church of Calvary, where the blessed Mary- 
was and where St. John was standing when the Lord said, 
* Woman, behold ihy son . . . Son, behold thy mother.' 
Without the church door, on the left-hand side, is the altar 
of St. John the Baptist. Within the door, again to the right, 
is Mount Calvary, where the Lord was crucified. Below is 
Golgotha, where the Lord's blood fell upon the rock. There 
was Adam's head, and there Abraham offered his sacrifice. 
On the other side, at the foot of Mount Calvary, is the 
place and the column where the Lord was scourged, and 
near it, toward the east, down forty-three steps, is the place 
where St. Helena found the holy cross. In the church is 
the Lord's sepulchre, and there, near to it, on the east side 
thereof, in the midst of the choir, is the middle of the 
world, where the Lord was laid when Nicodemus took Him 
down from the cross. On the left-hand side is the Lord's 
prison, and close by is the place where the holy cross is 
worshipped. 

Near the Church of the Sepulchre stands St. Mary's 
Church, called St. Mary the Latin, on the place where it is 
said that St. Mary Magdalen and St. Mary the wife of 
Cleophas tore their hair when the Lord was put upon the 
cross, and there is the Hospital of St. John the Baptist. 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM VII. 71 

Two bow-shots from that place is the Lord's temple, built 
by Solomon, having four entrances and twelve doors. In 
the midst of the temple there is a great rock, where the ark 
of the covenant used to stand, in which ark now is Aaron's 
rod, and the tables of the law, and the golden candlesticks, 
and the urn with the manna which fell from heaven ; and 
there was the fire of the sacrifice, and from thence still 
flows the oil wherewith the king and prophets used to be 
anointed. Near to this the Son of God was presented, and 
Jacob saw the ladder coming down from heaven. On the 
left-hand side of the choir is : 

' The King of kings, of Virgin Mother born, 
Was here presented. This is holy ground. 
Here Jacob saw the ladder ; here he built 
His altar. Well may we hang gifts around.'^ 

On the right-hand side is the place where the angel 
appeared to Zachariah. Below is the confessional, which 
once was the Holy of Holies, the place where the Lord 
sent away the sinful woman taken in adultery. 

* From sin I set the people free. 
If they confess their sins to me.'^ 

There the birth of St. John the Baptist was announced, 
and there is a column which is worshipped by the Saracens, 
and which is said to stand where the altar was whereon 
Abraham meant to sacrifice his son. There, too, is a 
church on the spot where St. James was cast down from 
the temple. Beyond this, without the wall of the temple, 
there is an altar near which St. Zacharias was slain. The 
Beautiful Gate is as one goes into the courtyard of the 
temple. 

On the other side is Solomon's temple. Between the 

^ These verses occur with but lit:le variation in John of Wiirzburg, 
p. 14, and Theoderich, p. 27. 
^ See John of Wiuzburg, p. 15. 



72 . ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 



temple and the Golden Gate there are trees. It was here 
that the children carried boughs when the Lord rode upon 
the ass, and there, near Solomon's temple, at the corner 
of the city, is Christ's chamber (cradle ?)/ His mother's 
bed and bath, and there is St. Simeon's sepulchre. 

On the east side, near the temple, is the (Golden) Gate. 
To the north is the sheep-pool, and there, close by, is St. 
Anne's (Church) and the well where the pilgrims go. 
Near St. Anne's is St. Mary Magdalen's Church. To the 
northward, near the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, is St. 
Chariton's Church. 

On the south side is Mount Sion, where a beauteous 
church has been built in honour of the Blessed Mary. In 
it she passed away to heaven. Her most holy body was 
carried to the Valley of Jehoshaphat. On the left-hand 
side of this church there is a chapel on the place where 
was the judgment hall and judgment of Christ; on the 
right-hand side is Galilee, where the Lord appeared to 
Simon (Peter) and the women. Above, near the choir, is 
the place where the Holy Ghost came down upon the 
Apostles, and in that same church there is the table 
whereon Christ supped, when He said: 'Take, eat, this 
is My body.' Below is the place where He washed the 
disciples' feet, and there is the basin^ which held the water. 
In this same place Jesus stood when He said : ' Peace be 
unto you ' ; and there it was that St. Thomas felt the 
Lord's side. On the left-hand side is St. Stephen's altar, 
on the place where he was buried. 

Without the church there is a little church on the 
place where was the judgment hall where the Lord was 
scourged, crowned with thorns, and mocked, and here was 

^ See Anon, ii , and 'The City of" Jerusalem ' in this series, ch. xiv., 
p. 15. 

^ Pz/a. Clearly, as Tobler points out, the basin for washing the feet 
is meant. Neumann translates it ' pillar.' 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM VII. -ji 

the house of Caiaphas. Beyond the Mount Sion is a 
church on the place to which St. Peter fled when he 
denied the Lord and the cock crew. Toward the Valley 
of Jehoshaphat is the bathing-pool of Siloam, where the 
prophet Isaiah is buried. 

Between Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives is the 
Valley of Jehoshaphat, wherein the Apostles buried the 
Blessed Mary, and there is the brook Cedron. There also 
was the country house which was called Gethsemane. 
There the Lord sent away Peter and the other Apostles 
while He prayed, * Father, if it be possible,' etc., and there 
is the garden where He was taken by the Jews. A stone's- 
throw from thence is the place where He prayed and His 
sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to 
the ground. Near this place is the sepulchre of King 
Jehoshaphat, after whom the valley is named. There, 
too, is a church wherein St. James, the holy old man 
Simeon, and Zachariah, were buried, and not far away to 
the south is Aceldama, or the burial-place'pf strangers. 

The Lord ascended to His Father on the Mount of 
Olives, and there He bade His disciples preach the Gospel 
to every creature. Not far off there is a little church 
where the Lord's Prayer was made. Beneath is a church 
wherein is the sepulchre of St. Pelagia.^ Between the 
Mount of Olives and Bethany is Bethphage, where the 
Lord sent Peter and John to fetch the ass, and hard by is 
Bethany, where the Lord raised Lazarus and forgave the 
sinful woman her sins. Here was the house of Simon the 
leper. Close to it is St. Martha's (Church), where she and 
Mary met the Lord. 

The road from Jerusalem to Bethlehem leads through 

^ See Antoninus, ch. xvi. ; Tobler's * Theoderich,' etc., St. Gall and 
Paris, 1865, note, pp. 245, 7; Fabri, i. 499 ; Anon. Pilgrim ii. 7 ; v. i, 
p. 25. 



74 ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 

the David Gate to the Church of St. Elias, built on the 
spot where he stood. By the wayside is Rachel's tomb. 
At Bethlehem Christ was born, and there is St. Jerome's 
sepulchre and the well into which the star fell, and a 
picture wherein St. Mary is shown with the three kings. 
In the cloister are the tombs of the Innocents. In the 
crypt of the Blessed Virgin's Church is an altar on the 
place where she was delivered. Not far from Bethlehem 
is the church which stands on the place where the angel ap- 
peared to the shepherds. There also is a church on the place 
where St. Mary rested when she was pregnant of the Lord. 
At the east end of this church is the road which leads to 
Abraham's (tomb) at Hebron, five leagues distant from 
Jerusalem. At this same place (Hebron) the Lord made 
Adam. Not far from thence was the house of Cain and 
Abel. Near it is the place where God appeared to Abraham 
in three persons. To the eastward (westward) is the place 
where St. Mary greeted Elizabeth, where John the Baptist 
was born, and where Zacharias dwelt. Two leagues from 
thence is the castle of Emmaus. 

Without the gate of Jerusalem is the Church of the 
Holy Cross, on the place where its wood was cut. In 
Jerusalem is the place where St. Peter was in prison. In 
the temple there is a spring of living water, wherefore the 
prophet said : ' I saw water coming out,' etc.^ 

It is seven leagues from Jerusalem to Mount Quarantena, 
and at the foot of that mount is Abraham's garden. Near 
to that place is Jericho, and two leagues further on is the 
river Jordan. From that river it is a journey of eighteen 
days to Mount Sinai. 

It is twelve leagues from Jerusalem to Samaria (Sichem), 
which is now called Neapolis, where is the well whereat 
the Lord talked with the woman of Samaria. There is the 

^ Ezek. xlvii. i. Compare Anon. v. i, and John of Wiirzburg, p. i6. 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM VIII. 



75 



mount whereon Abraham would have offered up his son. 
It is two leagues from that place to Sebaste, where St. 
John the Baptist was beheaded/ and where his dust is 
preserved to this day. 

Ten leagues thence is Mount Tabor, where the Lord 
was transfigured. Near it is Mount Hermon (Hermoniim),^ 
where is the city of Nain, where before the gate the Lord 
raised up him that was the only son of his mother. Toward 
the east is the Sea of Galilee, where the Lord fed five 
thousand men with five loaves and two fishes. To the 
west is the noble city of Nazareth, where the Annunciation 
was made to the Blessed Virgin by an angel, and there 
was her house. 

These places and others should be worshipped by the 
faithful. 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM VIIL 

(i2^^ century ; probably 1185.) 

OF THE LAND BEYOND THE SEAS. 

All who would visit the Promised Land meet with these 
places following : 

First they come into the city of Nazareth. There the 
angel made the Annunciation to the Blessed Mary^ and 
she conceived of the Holy Ghost. 

After this you will come to the city of Jerusalem, and 
there without the walls you will find the place where St. 
Stephen was stoned. From thence you will come to the 
holy sepulchre, which is in the midst of the city of 
Jerusalem. At the entrance to the Church of the holy 
sepulchre, on the right-hand side, is the place where our 

^ Burchardus denies this tradition. 

* Stanley's ' Sinai and Palestine,' ch. xi., init, ; Ps. xlii. 6. 



76 ANONYMOUS PILGRIMS. 

Lord commended the Blessed Virgin to the care of St. 
John. There within the church you will find Golgotha ; 
above it is Mount Calvary, where our Lord was crucified. 
Afterwards you will go from thence to the place where the 
holy cross was found. Then, in the canons' choir, there is 
the place where our Lord was laid after He was taken 
down from the cross and was wrapped in linen. This 
place is said to be the middle of the world. From this 
place he was borne to the holy sepulchre, and at the 
entrance to the holy sepulchre is the place where the 
angel sat while our Lord was in the sepulchre. 

After this we come to Mount Sion, where is St. Saviour's 
Chapel, which is called 'the judgment hall of Pilate.' 
Here our Lord was crowned, bound, spat upon, and 
judged by Pilate. Afterwards you will come to the place 
where the Blessed Virgin Mary passed away. Then to 
the place of the Lord's supper, where He gave His com- 
mands to His disciples and washed their feet ; and there 
is the place where He consecrated His body, and where, 
after the resurrection, He came to them as they sat with 
closed doors, and said : ' Peace be unto you.' At that 
place the Holy Ghost came down upon the disciples on 
the Day of Pentecost. Next you will find the tomb of 
King David, the tomb of Solomon, and that of St. 
Stephen, the first martyr, and the place where St. Stephen 
was ordained. Then you will come to the place where 
St. Peter hid himself when he had denied Christ. 
• Next you will come to the fountain of Siloam, where 
the blind man washed his eyes and straightway saw. 
Next to the Lord's temple, where Christ was presented 
and was received by Simeon. Thence to St. Anne's. 

Thence into the Valley of Jehoshaphat, where you will 
find the Blessed Virgin Mary's sepulchre, and close by 
there is the place where the Lord was bound. Then you 



ANONYMOUS PILGRIM VIII, yy 

go up to the Mount of Olives, where you will find the 
place where our Lord ascended into heaven. There, too, 
is the church called * Paternoster/ Thence to Bethany, 
where our Lord raised Lazarus. There is St. Mary 
Magdalen's Church, and there is the stone whereon the 
Lord was sitting when Martha came to Him. Thence to 
the river Jordan. 

Thence to Bethlehem, where you will find the place 
where our Lord was born, and there is the manger wherein 
He was laid. Thence to the place where the angel brought 
the shepherds good tidings of great joy (Luke ii.), ' Glory 
to God in the highest and on earth,' etc. Thence to the 
holy patriarch Abraham. Thence to the place where 
St. John the Baptist was born. Thence to the well at 
Emmaus, where our Lord was on Easter Day, and they 
knew Him in the breaking of bread. 

Thence to Mount Tabor, where the Lord was trans- 
figured. 

Who with God the Father and the Son, in the unity 
of the Holy Spirit, reigneth for ever and ever. Amen. 



INDEX. 



Aachen, 66 

Aaron, 42 — 45, 71 

Abana, 51 

Abaram, ^5 

Abarim, 45 

Abdias, 31 

Abel, 26, 37, 50, 74 

Abiram, 43 

Abraham, i, 5, 11, 23, 26, 35, 37, 

38, 50, 56, 60, 70, 71, 74, -n 
Abraham's garden, 10, 19, 25. 74 
Abybas, 8 
Accaron, 5 
Accon, 22, 27 
Aceldama, 10, 21, 68, 'JS 
Acheldamach, 25 
Achor, 47 
Aeon, 35 
Acre, 5, 31, 55 

Adam, i, 7, 11, 20, 26, 36, y^, 70 
Adam and Eve, 31 
Adam's apple, 34 
Adama, 39 
Agenor, 35 
Ahaziah, 58 
Akaan, 44 
Akris, 17 

Alexander the Great, 49 
Alexandria, 58 
Allah Kebir, 65 
Alphaeus, 9, 53 
Amalek, 41 
Amorites, 45 
Ananias, 50 
Anak, 38 
Andrew, 53, 54 
Annas, house of, 18 



Anne, St., 26, 56, 76 ; church of 

9. 23, 72, 76 ; house of, 19 
Annunciation, the, 75 
Antichrist, 53 
Antilebanon, 51 
Antioch, 49, 51, 52 
Antiochus, 49, 51 
Apollonius, 49 
Apple, Adam's, 34 
' Apparition,' the, 28 
Apulia, 12 

Arabia, 27, 33, 39, 40, 48, 53 
Arada, 43 
Aram, 48 
Archas, 51 
Arimathaea, 2 
Armenians, 24, 28 
Arphat, 48 
Ascalon, 32, 35 
Ascension, place of the, 10 
Aseroch, 44 
Aseroth, 42 
Asion Gaber, 44 
Asmola, 43 

Asphalt, lake of, 39, 47, 52, 68 
Assumption, the, 17 
Assur, 22 
Aulon, 52 
Austin Canons, 31 



Babylon, 35 
Baffa, 13 
Bala, 39 
Balaam, 46 
Balak, 46 
Baldwin, 4S 
Balsam, 34, 47 



8o 



INDEX. 



Baneiachan, 44 

Baptist, John the, 5 ; church of, 

7, II 
Barachel, 48 
Barak, 57 
Barbara, St., 51 
Bashan, 45 
Beelmon, 52 
Belinas, 36 
Belseton. 41 
Bethaglah, 47 
Betharan, 52 
Bethel, 36, 59, 60, 64 
Bethany, 2, 10, 20, 25, 68, 69, 77 
Bethlehem, 4, 16, 26, 32, 36, 61, 

62, 63, 77 ; bishop of, 31 
Bethphage, 10, 69, 73 
Bethsaida, 53 
Bethsan, 57 
Bethulia, 55 
Bethsarathain, 46 
Beyrout, 31, 49 
Bildad, 53 
Bitumen, 39 
Bleinas, 31 
Blood, Field of, 19 
Bostron, 48 
Bosra, 48 
Bozor, 48, 50 
Brindisi, 12 



Cademoth, 45 

Cades, Cadesh-barnea, 44 

Cadumim, 57 

Caesarea, 35 ; Archbishop of, 31, 

32 
Caesarea Philippi, 31, 36 
Caiaphas, house of, i, 18, 24, y;^ 
Gaifa, 22, 32 
Cain, 50, 74 
Caleb, 38 
Calvary, i, 2, 5, 7, 15, 18, 22, 33, 

70, 76 
Canaanitish woman, 49 
Cana in Galilee, 27, 56 
Candia, 13 
Capernaum, 53, 54 
Cariatharbe, 37 
Gariathiarim, 35 
Carmel, 22, 34 
Garth ag^, 49 
Catharine, St., 3 note 



Gatranum, 39 

Cedar, 53, 54 

Cedars, 35 

Cedron, brook, 2, 9, 20, jt, 

Gelatha, 43 

Ciiariton, church of St., J2. {See 

Karioth) 
Charles the Bald, 66 
Charles the Great, 66 
Charnel-house of the lion, 11 
Charroux, 66 
Chebron, ■^J 
Ghedorlaomer, 48, 50 
Ghorazin, 53 
Ghoreus, 50 

Chrysostom, St. John, 24 
Church of At Stump or At Stock, 

II 
Church of Bethlehem, 16 

B.V.M., 16,74 

Christ's Miracles, 17 

Holy Gross, 74 

Martha and Mary, 20, y^ 

St Anne, 9, 23, 72 

St. Elias, J4 

St. John the Baptist, 11 

St. Mary Magdalen, 76 

the Annunciation, at Naza- 
reth, 16 

the Cockcrowing, 8 

the Saviour, 25 

Ginnereth, 55, 58 

Clarence, 12 

Gleophas, 2, 70 

Cockcrow, 8, 25 

Column, the Lord's, 24 

Gonstantine, 2, 65 

Constantinople, 58 

Cotton, 34 

Gross, the Holy, 6, 9, 22, 65, 70 

Cross, exaltation of the Holy, 9 

Grosses, pilgrims', 6 note 

Cyprus, 13, 15, 17, 27 

Cyrus, 64 

D 

Dan, 52, 53, 59 

Damascus, 48, 50, 51 

Dathan, 43 

Dead Sea, 12 

David, 19, 34, 39, 47, 48, 49, 61, 

63, 64, 76 
David Gate, the, 74 



INDEX. 



8i 



Deborah, 57 

Delpheta, 41 

Demetrius, St., 24 

Deuteronomy, 45 

Devil's Lake, 33 

Dido, 35, 49 

Dinah, 59 

Diospolis, 60 

Dominus vidit^ the place called, 5 

Dor, 35 

Dothami (Dothaim), 55 

Dybongad, 45 

Dyrbs, 38 



E 



Ebal, 59, 60 

Ebar, 45 

Ebron, 35, 37, 38, 44, 47, 60 (see 

Hebron) 
Edessa, 48 
Edom, 44, 50 
Effrata, 36 
Egypt, 27, 34, 40, 47, 59 

St. Mary of, 12, 19, 23 

Ekron, 5 
Eleazar, 44 
Elias, 5, II, 33,58 

convent of St., 26, 74 

Eliezar, 50 
Elijah, 3, 22, 58 
Elim, 10, 41 
Eliphaz, 53 
Elisha, 31, 58 
Elisha's fountain, 3, 10 

Elizabeth, 11, 74 

Emechachor, 47 

Emmaus, 26, ']'] 

castle of, II, 74 

Emor (Hamor), 59 

Endor, 57 

Engaddi, 47 

En Rogel, 68 

Ephratah, 61 

Esau, 50 

Esdras, 64 

Etham, 40 

Euodius, St., 52 

Eustachius, St., 51 

Eustochium, 62 

Eve, 31, 37 

Exaltation of the Holy Cross, 9 

Ezrael, 57 



Fabri, 3 note, 12 note, etc. 
Famagosta, 15, 17 
Field, Fuller's, 68 

of Blood, 19 

the Flowery, 26 

the Lord's, 19 

Flowery Field, 26 
Forty Martyrs, 6 
Fountain, Elisha's, 3, 10 
Franks, or Latins, 27 
French, 49 
Fuller's Field, 68 
Fynon, 45 

G 

Gabaath, 68 
Gabatoth, 44 
Gad, 52 
Gadgad, 44 
Gaffa, 19 
Galagala, 46, 47 

Galilee, 4, 47, 53, 55, 57, 58; the 
place in Jerusalem so-called, 8, 

Gamaliel, 8 

Garden, Abraham's, 10, 19, 25, 74 

Gate, Golden, 9, 19, 24, 25, 72 

Jerusalem, 24 

of the Temple, 24 

of David, 74 

of Paradise, 23 

the Beautiful, 23 

Gaza, 35 
Geminum, 58 
Gennesareth, 32, 55 
Genninum, 58 
Genoese, 29 
George, St., 28 

Church of, 35 

Georgians, 11, 28 

Gergressa, 54 

Gerizim, 60 

Gethsemane, 2, 9, 20, 25, 'j'}^ 

Gethacofer, 49 

Gilboa, 34 

Gilgal, 46 

Gion, 12 

Gloria in excelsis, 11, 77 

Golden calf, 41 

Golden Gate, 9, 19, 24, I5, 72 

Golgoiha, I, 6, 22, 76 

Goliath, 61 

6 



82 



INDEX. 



Gomorrha, 12, 39 
Gorrus, Ei Gh6r, 52 
Greeks, 12, 28 
Gur, 58 

H 



Hamor, 59 

Haylus, 41 

Heber the Kenite, 57 

Hebron, 1 1, 20, 31, 74 (see Ebron) 

valley of, 20 

Helena, St., 6, 18, 23, 61, 65, 70 

Helius Adrianus, 35, 61 

Helmon Deblathaim, 45 

Heraclius, 65 

Hermits, 10 

Hermon, 34, 56, 75 

Herod, 8, 58, 62, 67 

Hezekiah, i 

Hiding-place of B.V.M., 24 

Hiram, 49, 55 

Holofernes, 55 

Holy Cross, 6, 9, 23, 65, 70 

Holy Innocents, 11, 26 

Horeb, 41 

Hosannah, 20 

Hospital of St. John the Baptist, 

70 
Hospitallers, the Knights, 13, 29 
House of Annas, 18 

Caiaphas, 1,18, 24, 73 

Herod, 18 

Hezekiah, i 

Pilate, 18 

St. Anne, 19 

St. Mary, 19 

I 

Idumaea, 48, 50, 57 

Ignatius, St., 52 

Innocents, the Holy, 11, 26 

Isaac, ^7y 60 

Isaiah, 2, 21, 25, 48, 50, 63, 7^ 

Israel, 50 

Ituraea, 48 

J 
Jabbok, 50 
Jacob, 8, 23, 37, 47, 50, 59, 60,63, 

71 
Jacobites, 12, 29 
Jacob's Well, 17, 26, 33 
lael, 57 



Jafifa, 15 

James, St., the Great, 7, 10, 12, 24, 

27, 33, 36, 53, 56, 68 ; legend 

of, 36 

the Less, 8, 9, 53 

Jehoshaphat, valley of, 2, 4, 9, 16, 

17, 19, 20, 25, 32, 68, 69, 73, 76 

church and convent of, 32 

sepulchre of, 25, 68, 73 

Jehu, 58 

Jericho, 3, 10, 17, 34, 45-47,^0,74 

Jeroboam, 59 

Jerome, 7, 11, 26, 32, 38, 59, 74 

Jerusalem, passim 

Jethro, 41 

Jews' pitch, 39 

Jezebel, 57 

Jezrael, 57 

Job, 53 . . . 

John, St., 15, 19, 53, 56, 67,73, 76 

St., the Baptist, 5, 26, 31, 

38, 70, 74, 75, 77 
John the Baptist, Church of, 7, 1 1 
John Chrysostom, 24 
Jonah, 49 
Joppa, 32, 36, 60 
Jor, 52, 53 
Jordan, 3, 10-12, 25, 44, 46, 47, 50, 

52, 53, 57, 58, 74 
Joseph, 55, 59 
Joseph of Arimathaea, 2 
Joshua, 38, 41, 45, 47, 60 
Joshua, high priest in Neheniiah's 

time, 64 
Josiah, King, 57 
Judaea, 46, etc. 
Judas, 2, 9 

also called Quiriacus, 6 



Judgment-hall, 72, 76 
Judith, 55 
Julian, 58 
Juhus Caesar, 64 
Justinian, 65 

K 
Kabrata, 63 

Karioth, Church of St., 62, 72 
Karnaim, 46 ' 
Kishon, 57 
Korah, 43 

L 

Lake of Asphalt, 39, 47, 52, 68 
Latin, St. Mary the, 7, 7o 



INDEX. 



83 



Latins, 27, 28 

Lazarus, 2, 16, 20, 69, 76 

Lazarus, the Order of, 13 

Leah, 37 

Lebanon, 34, 48, 51, 52, 54, 56 

cedars of, 35 

Lebna, 43 

Lidda, 35 

Lion, charnel-house of the, 1 1 

Lord's Field, the, 10, note 

Lot's wife, 39 

Lucus a non lucendo, 44 

Luke, St., 51 

Luza, 36, 60 

Lydda, 31 

Lymatzu, 13 

M 

Maccabees, 51, 64 

Maceloih, 43 

Machaerunta, 58 

Machomeria, 36 

Magdalen, St. Mary, 2, 7, 18, 19, 

55,77 

chapel of, 7 

Church of, 12, 72, Jj 

Magdalum, 55 

Magi, 32 

Mainz, Archbishop of, 28 

Mambre, 38 

Manahen, 59 

Manasseh, King, 63 

Manna, 40, 41, 47 

Mara, 41 

Mark, St., 13 

Martha, 20, 68, 69, yj 

Church of St., 'J2> 

Martin, St , 24 

Martyrs, the XL., 6 

Mary and Martha, Church of, 20, 

73 
Mary, BN.^ passim 
Mary, sepulchre of B.V., 2, 9, 16, 

20, 25, 2>2,, 72, 76 
Mary Magdalen, 2, 7, 18, 19, 55, 

77. She is confused by all the 

pilgrims with Mary the sister of 

Martha 
Mary of Egypt, St., 12, 19, 23 
Mary the Latin, St., 7, 70 
Mary, the wife of Cleophas, 2, 70 
Marys, the three, 2, 7, 23, 70 
Maundy Thursday, 19 



Medan, 53 

Megiddo, 57 

Melchisedek, 56 

Memphis, 65 

Mesopotamia, 50, 59 

Methca, 43 

Midianites, 46 

Miracles, Church of Christ's, 17 

Miriam, 42, 44 

Moab, 31, 45, 46 

Moloch, 68 

Monreal, 31, 48 

Moriah, Mount, 64 

Moses, 3, 33, 41, 44, 45, 56, 60 

Mount Moriah, 63 

Pharan, 48 

Mount Seir, 50 
Mount Sepher, 43 

N 

Naaman, the Syrian, 52 

Naaman, city, 53 

Naboth, 57 

Nabuzardan, 64 

Nam, or Naim, 57, 75 

Naphtali, 55 

Nathaniel, 56 

Naulon, $7 

Nazarenes, 42 

Nazareth, 16, 17, 27, 32, 55, 56, 61, 

75 

Archbishop of, 31 

Neapolis, i, 26, 32, 36, 59, 60, 74 
Nebo, 45 
Nehemidh, 65 
Nestorian heresy, 29 
Nicodemus, 8, 50, 70 
Nicosia, 13 

O 

Obeth, or Oboth, 45 
Og, King of Bashan, 45 
Oil, miraculous, 3 note 
01am, 60 
Origen, 49 
Oman, 64 

P 
Paneas, 36, 53 
Paradise, Gate of, 23 

tree of, 34 

Paran, wilderness of, 52 
Paternoster, Church of the, 2, 10 
77 



84 



INDEX. 



Patriarch of Jerusalem, the, 31 

Patriarch Wariamendus, 49 

Patrick, St., 14 

Paul, St., 51 

Paula, St., 62 

Pelagia, St., 10, 25, y^ 

Pentecost, 24, 76 

Peter, St., 25, 51, 53, 54, 56, 67, 73, 

74,76 
at the Cock crowing, church 

of, 8 

of the Fetters, church of, 8 

Petra, 31 

Pharaoh Necho, 64 

Phamum, 15 

Pharan, Mount, 48 

Pharphar, 51 

Philip, St., 7, 56 

Philip, Tetrarch of ItU'aea, 48 

Philistines, 35 

Phineas, 46 

Phoenicia, 31, 34, 48 

Pihariroth, 41 

Pilate, 76 

House of, 18 

Judgment-hall of, i, 23, 76 

Pinnacle of the Temple, 66 

Pisans, 29 

Pitch, Jews', 39 

Place where the Lord wept over 

Jerusalem, 20 
Poitou, 58, 66 
Pompey, 64 
Porfiria, 35 
Potter's Field, 19 
Print of the Lord's fingers, 9, 25 
Prison, the holy, 2, 6, 23, 70 
Ptolemais, 5 note, 35 



Quails, 41 

Quarantena, Mount (variously 

spelt), 10, 19, 25, 32,74 
Quiriacus, St., 6 

R 
Rachel's tomb, 11, 26, 63, y^)^ 74 
Rahab, 47 
Rama, 15 
Ramale, 62 
Ramatha, 17, 60 
Ramesses, 40 
Rebecca, ^7 
Reblatha, 51 



Rechsa, 43 

Red Sea, 41 

Rehoboam, 64 

Rephidim, 41 

Rethma, 43 

Reu, 49 

Reuben, 52 * 

Rimmon-parez, 43 

Rock, showing the marks of the 

Lord's fingers, 9, 25 
Rogel, En, 68 
Romania, 12 
Rome, 61 



Saint Abraham at Hebron, 11, 26 

Andrew, 53, 54 

Anne, 27, 56 

Church of, 9, 23, 72, 76 

house of, 19 

Barbara, 51 

Chariton, 72 

Demetrius, 24 

Elias, Convent of, 26 

Elizabeth, 11, 74 

Euodius, 52 

Eustachius, 51 

George, 28 

Helena, 6, 18, 23, 61, 65, 70 

Ignatius, 52 

James the Great, 7, 10, 12, 

24, 27, 53, 56, 68 ; legend of, 36 

the Less, 8, 9, 53 

Jean de Maurienne, 58 

Jerome, 24, 26 

John, 15,19, 53, 56, 67, 73. 76 

Baptist, 5, 26, 31, 58, 

70, 71, 75, 77 ; church of, 7, il 

Chrysostom, 24 

Karioth, 62, 72 

Lazarus, Order of, 13. note 

Luke, 51 

Mark, 13 

Mary, V>N., passim 

Mary Magdalen, 2, 7, 18, 19, 

55; chapel of, 7; church of, 
12, 72, 77 

Mary of Egypt, 12, 19, 23 

Mary the Latin, 7, 70 

Martin, 24 

Patrick, 14 

Philip, 7, 56 

Pelagia, 10, 25, 73 



INDEX. 



85 



Saint Peter, 25, 51, 53, 54, 56, 67, 

73. 74, 76 

Quiriacus, 6 

Stephen, 5, 8, 12, 72, 76 

Thekla, 58 

Thomas, 8, 18, 72 

Saffera, 36 

Sagitta,'36 

Salmanna, 57 

Samaria, 17, 33, 36, 57, 59, 60, 74 

Samuel, 60 

Saphoria, 27 

Saphranum, 27 

Sarah, 37 

Sarepta, 36 

Sarphen, 49 

Saul (Paul), 50 

Save, 47 

Scythopolis, 52, 57 

Sea, Dead, 12 

Sebaste, 5, 31, 59, 75 

Sebastia, 26 

Seboim, 39 

Sedrach, 48 

Segor, 39 

Seir, Mount, 50 

Selmona, 45 

Sepher, 43 

Sepphoria, 27 

Sepphoris, 55, 56 

Seth, 37 

Seyr, 50 

Sheep-pool, 2, 9, 19, 67, 72 

Shunamite, 59 

Sichar, 4, 36 

Sichem, 4, 59, 60, 68, 74 

Sidon, 31, 35,49 

Sihon, King, 45 

Siloam, 19-21, 25, 33, 68, 76 

Simeon, 2, 9, 73, 76 

Simon, the leper, 19, 68, 73 

Simon Magus, 58 

Sin, 41,44 

Smai, 3,25, 31,41,74 

Sion, 8, e^ saep 

Sodom, 39 

Sodomites, 12 

Solomon, i, 4, 49, 55, 64. 68, 76 

Solomon's temple. 2, 19, 24, 7i,[72 

Solym, 51 

Sor, 48 

Stephen, St., 5,8, 12, 72, 76 

Stock, church at, n 



Strangers' Field, 20 

Strato's Tower, 35 

Stump, Church At, 1 1 

Succoth, 40 

Sueta, 53 

Sugar-canes, 34 

Sychar, 59 

Sychem, 60 

Syn,44 

Syria, 27. 34, 48, 50, 51 

Syrians, 6, 12, 28 



Taath, 43 

' Table,' the. 5, 54 

Tabor, 4, 26, i^, 34, 56, 58, 75, 

11 
I Tekoa, 5, 62 

j Templars, 10, 13, 29, 30, 32 
i Temple, Solomon's, 2, 19, 24, 71, 
i 72 

j Tersilia, 59 
I Thafon, 45 
} Thamnazare,^6o 
I Thase, 43 

Thekla, 58 

Theman, 53 

Theodosius, the Emperor, 38 

Thocor, 5 

Thomas, St., 8, 18, 72 

Thoron, 12, 13 

Tiberias, 4, 5, 31, 55 

Titus, 65 

Tobias, 55 

Tonsure, the, 29 

Tortosa, 27 

Tophet, 68 

Trachonitis,'48 

Trees of Paradise, 34 

Trinity, the Holy, 11, 38 

Tudebove, Peter, 3 note 

Tyre, 35, 48, 49, 55 

Archbishop of, 31 



Uz, 53 



U 



V 



Vale of Hebron, 20 
Vale of Tears, 37 
Venetians, 29, 49 
Vespasian, 33, 65 



86 



INDEX. 



W 

Wariamendus, the patriarch, 49 
Water-pot at Sinai, 3 
"Wisdom, book of, i 



Yaf, 17 



Zabulon, 55 
Zacchaeus, 3 
Zachariah, 11, 71, 73 



Zacharias, 1, 23, 67, 71 
Zambri, 46 
Zaraim, 57 
Zaron (Sharon), 57 
Zeb, 57 
Zeba, 57 
Zebedee, 24, 27 
Zedekiah, 64 
Zelbus, 57 
Zerubbabel, 64 
Zoar, 39 
Zoheleth, 68 
Zophar, 53 



THE END. 



BILLING AND. SONS, PRINTERS, GUILDFORD. 



flalestim pilgrims' ^ext goctetg. 



THE 



CITY OF JERUSALEM. 



TRANSI<ATED FROM THE OI,D FRENCH, WITH NOTES, BY 

LIEUT.-COL. C. R. CONDER, R.E., D.C.L., LL.D. 



{1220 A.D.) 




LONDON : 
24, HANOVER SQUARE, W. 

1896. 



PREFACE. 



The ' Citez de Jherusalem,' a tract dating after the time of 
Saladin's conquest of the city in 1 187 A.D., exists in several 
MSS. It was first published by Count Beugnot in his 
edition of ' Les Assises de Jerusalem/ from a MS. in the 
Library of the Rue Richelieu (Fonds de Sorbonne, No 
387). Tobler found three copies in the Library of Berne 
(Nos. 113, 115, and 41 coming from the Abbey of St. Gall), 
and several other copies exist in the Imperial Library at 
Paris. The best edition (which is here followed) is that 
of the Societe de I'Orient Latin, derived from the latest 
found and most complete MSS. 

In some MSS. the description of the Holy Land (Part 
II.) follows. It is absent from Tobler's MSS. (see ' Eglises 
de la Terre Sainte/ p. 434). The descriptions in this tract 
are less detailed than those of John of Wiirzburg and 
Theodoricus, but on the other hand the number of subjects 
treated is larger, and the value to the student of mediaeval 
Jerusalem is very great. 

The style and language of the additional text which 
occurs in the MSS. reproduced by De Vogiie is like that of 
the first part. • The description of Jerusalem repeats some- 
thing of the details of the first part, and the work might 
stand alone as an account of Pilgrim routes about 1220 
A.D., after Jerusalem had been taken by Saladin ; for the 



iv PREFACE. 

places mentioned are those which used to be visited by 
agreement with the Saracens. The wording of the text in 
both parts bears evidence of the familiarity of the author 
with most of the sites he notices. The chronicler Ernoul, 
writing in 1228, introduces the account of the first part into 
his history, but the name of the original author is not 
known. 

The mention of Chateau Pelerin in the second part (see 
p. 31) gives a date not earlier than 12 18 when this castle was 
built by the Templars. St. Margaret's on Carmel also is 
said to have been built in 1209 A.D. St. Chariton, who is 
said in the text (see p. 36) to have been dead 800 years, 
died in 410A.D. Taken together, these facts would indicate 
a writer who had lived in Palestine between 1220 and 
1229 A.D. In the latter year Jerusalem again came into 
the possession of the Christians. 

The passage? in brackets are taken from MSS. other 
than the one generally followed. 

The account by Ernoul dates from 1231 A.D. ; it is taken 
from Chapters VII. to X. of his Chronicle (from the text 
given by the Soci^te de I'Orient Latin) and describes other 
parts of Palestine. It is less valuable than the preceding 
as it contains many errors. Some of the paraphrases of 
Scripture episodes have been omitted in translating as 
specified in the foot-notes. 

C. R. C. 



CONTENTS. 

TAGS 

PREFACE -----. iii 

LIST OF MSS. ------ vii 

THE CITY OF JERUSALEM - - - - 1-28 

The Second Part, 
i. of the pilgrimages in the holy land - - 29-34 

ii. of jerusalem ------ 34.40 

hi. of places near jerusalem - - - - 40-43 

iv. of pilgrimages from acre - - - - 43-47 

v. of other pilgrimages to distant places - - 47-49 

ERNOUL'S ACCOUNT OF PALESTINE - • 50-64 

NOTE. — THE PISCINA INTERIOR - • - - 65-69 



MAP OF JERUSALEM IN I187 A.D., OUTLINE FROM SIR 

C. w. WILSON'S MAP - - - to face page i 

EXPLANATION OF NUMBERS ON THE MAP. 

MAP OF SYRIA ABOUT II80 A.D., WITH CRUSADING NAMES 

PREPARED BY G. ARMSTRONG - - to face page -i^^ 



LIST OF MSS. 

COMPARED BY THE SOCI^TE DE L'ORIENT LATIN. 

The City of Jerusalem : 

Paris Arsenal 4797, Bibl. Nat. fr. 781 and 9086. 
Berne 41, 113, 115, 340. 
Brussels 11142. 
St. Omer 722. 

The Second Part : 

Paris Bibl. Nat. fr. 9082. 
Vienna Bibl. Imp. 2590. 

Ernoul's Account of Palestine : 

Paris Arsenal 4797, Bibl. Nat. fr. 781, 
Berne 41, 113, 115, 340. 
Brussels 11142. 
St. Omer 722. 



JERUSALEM IN 1187 a.d. 
Explajtation of numbers oji the map. 

1. Latin Exchange. 

2. St. James of Galicia. 

3. St. Mary Latin. 

4. St. Mary the Great. 

5. German Hospice. 

6. Bridge. 

7. Gate Beautiful. 

8. Chapel of St. James the Les?* 

9. Jerusalem. 

10. Christ's Cradle. 

11. Lepers' Hospital. 

12. Syrian Exchange. ' 

13. St. Saviour. 

14. Charnel-House of Lion. 

1 5. Gate Dolorous (.?) 

16. Chapel of ' Rest ' (?) 

17. St. Mary Magdalene. 

18. St. Anne. 

19. St. Saviour. 

20. Prison of Christ. 

21. Pilatus. 

22. Bethesda. 

23. St. Caristo. 

24. The Altar (Supposed Site of), 

25. Gate of Paradise. 

26. Covered Street. 

27. Malquisinat. 

28. Street of Herbs. 



THE CITY OF JERUSALEM. 

IN WHAT STATE THE CITY OF JERUSALEM AND THE 
HOLY PLACES ARE AT THIS DAY. 

[Because most good Christians willingly speak and hear 
spoken about the holy city of Jerusalem and the holy 
places where Jesus Christ lived and died, we shall tell how 
it was at the time when Saladin and the Saracens took it 
from the Christians. Many persons there may be who will 
wish to hear these things : those to whom it is displeasing 
may pass over this place.] 

I. 

MOUNT SION — THE ABBEY AND CHURCH OF OUR 
LADY — THE HOUSE WHERE JESUS CHRIST MADE 
HIS SUPPER, THE PLACE WHERE HE APPEARED TO 
HIS APOSTLES, WHERE HE SHOWED THEM HIS 
WOUNDS, WHERE HE ASCENDED INTO HEAVEN, 
V^HERE HE SENT THE HOLY SPIRIT, AND WHERE 
OUR LADY DIED. 

Jerusalem [the glorious city] is no longer in the placed 

1 This shows the doubts arising from the central position of the 
traditional site in the twelfth century. Saswulf, in 1102, says that 
Hadrian rebuilt Jerusalem, ' and added to the city as far as the Tower 
of David, which was previously a considerable distance from the city., 
for anyone may see from the Mount of Olivet, where the extreme 
western walls of the city stood originally, and how much it is since 

I 



2 THE CONDITION OF THE CITY OF JERUSALEM 

where it stood when Jesus Christ [was on the earth,] was 
crucified and was raised again from death to life. When 
Jesus Christ was on the earth the city of Jerusalem v/as on 
Mount Sion,i but it is no longer there. Only an abbey of 
monks is there now, and in this abbey a church of Holy 
Mary. Where the church now stands, as we are told, was 
the house where Jesus Christ supped with His Apostles on 
Thursday (Jeudi Absolu), and instituted the Sacrament of 
the Altar. [In this church is the place where He appeared 
to the Apostles on Easter Day when He arose from the 
dead.] In this church is the place where He showed the 
wounds in His hands and feet and side to St. Thomas on 
the Octave of Easter, and told him that he should give Him 
his finger to put it into His side so that he should believe 
firmly and nothing doubt, and should not be an unbeliever 
but should believe.^ And there also He appeared on the 
day of His ascension, to His Apostles, when He came to 
bid them farewell, and would mount into the skies. From 
here they accompanied Him to Mount Olivet, whence He 
ascended into Heaven. Thence returned they back [to this 
very place] and waited for the Holy Spirit, [just as Jesus 

increased.' Saswulf possibly alludes to ruins of the ' second wall ' as 
still visible, which recent discovery shows to have been possible. See 
also Sect. III. of the present tract. 

1 Sion is here, as in the fourth century, the high south-west hill, 
still so called by the Christians of Jerusalem. The church described 
is the double Church of the Coenaculum, built by the crusaders 
and now still extant in the Mosque of Neby D^ud. The lower part 
included the site of washing the disciples' feet. In the upper was the 
place where the Virgin died. 

2 Galilee. In mediccval topography we find two Galilees, one on 
Olivet (Viri Galilasi), one on Sion ; the latter is mentioned by Saswulf, 
Theodoricus, and Maundeville. John of Wurzburg identifies Galli- 
cantus with the Galilee of Mount Sion (see Sect. XVII.) These 
sites seem both to originate in the words ' behold He goeth before you 
into Galilee,' Matt xxviii. lo (cf. John xxi. i6 and Luke xxiv. 50). 



AND THE HOLy PLACES AT THIS DA V. 



Christ had commanded them that they should return to 
the city and should wait for the Holy Spirit] which He 
had promised them. In this place He sent to them the 
grace of the Holy Spirit on the Day of Pentecost. Also 
in this church is the place where Holy Mary died in Galilee, 
and thence the Apostles bore her out into the valley of 
Jehosaphat and placed her in a sepulchre. 



II. 

THE SEPULCHRE AND CHURCH OF OUR LADY OF JE- 
HOSAPHAT, THE CHURCH OF OUR LADY OF MOUNT 
SION, THE ABBEY OF CANONS. 

On the site of Holy Mary's sepulchre is a church that 
they call the Church of Holy Mary of Jehosaphat,^ and it 
possesses an Abbey of Black Monks. The church of 
Mount Sion is called the Church of Holy Mary of Mount 
Sion, and it has an Abbey of Canons. These two abbeys 
are outside the walls of the city ; one is on the mount, and 
the other is in the valley. The Abbey of Mount Sion is on 
the right of the city, due south ; and that of the valley of 
Jehosaphat is towards the east, between Mount Olivet 
and Mount Sion. 

III. 

THE CHURCH OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE AND CALVARY. 

The Church of the Sepulchre as it is now and Mount 
Calvary, were, when Jesus Christ was crucified, outside the 
wall. Now it is in the middle' of the city, and the city is 

1 St. Mary of Jehosaphat still exists as the so-called Tomb of the 
Virgin with a Crusading church, built in the first half of the twelfth 
century on the ruins of an earlier Byzantine church (see Sect. XXIV.). 

I — 2 



4 THE CONDITION OF THE CITY OF JERUSALEM 



also on a slope which looks towards Mount Olivet on the 
east beyond the valley of Jehosaphat. 



IV. 



THE FOUR GATES — THE GATE AND TOWER OF DAVID- 



THE POSTERN TOWARDS MOUNT SION 



THE 



CHURCH OF ST. JAMES OF GALICIA. 
In the city of Jerusalem there are four Master Gates,i 

^ The two main gates here noticed were on the sites of the Jaffa 
Gate and Golden Gate (now closed). St. Stephen's Gate on the 
north was on the site of the present Damascus Gate (see Sect. XV.).. 
The Sion Gate appears to be the fourth main gate, east of the 
present west gate of the south wall (see Sect. XVI.), here noticed as a 
postern. The Sion Gate was not the present west gate of the south 
wall, but, as stated, was at the end of the street now Harat el Jawany. 
Other posterns were (i) Postern of St. Lazarus, west of Damascus 
Gate, now built up. (2) Postern of the Tannery, 'now the Bab el 
Magharibeh, on the south wall towards the east. (3) Postern of the 
Madeleine, now called Bab ez Zahrah, or Herod's Gate, east of the 
Damascus Gate and now closed. The Gate of Jehosaphat (see 
Sect. XXIII.) was also probably a main gate on the site of the present 
St. Stephen's Gate, in the east wall north of the Haram. 

The two posterns in the east wall of the Haram are not noticed, 
and were perhaps already closed by the Moslems before the crusading 
period. The enumeration of the gates is very unsystematic. 

The following is a conspectus of the names of the city gates : 



Modern. 




15th century. 
Arab. 


1 2th century. 
Critsading. 


4th century. 
Byzantine. 


St. Stephen's. 
Sitti Miriam. 




Bab el Asbat. 


Jehosaphat. 


Jehosaphat. 


Herod's. 
Zahrah. 


} 


Bab ez Sahrah. 


Postern of Ma- 
deleine. 


Benjamin. 


Damascus, 
el 'Amud. 


\ 


Bab Amud el 
Ghorab. 


St. Stephen. 


Galilean. 


«•••••...•...•..•>•. 




Bab es Serb. 


Postern St. La- 
zarus. 


Villa Fullonis. 


Jaffa. 


\ 


Bib el Khalil. 


David. 




el Khalil. 




Sion. 


\ 


Bib el Yahud. 


Sion (near). 

Postern of 
Tannery. 




Neby Daud. 
Dun"". 


Tekoa. 


el Magharibeh 







AND THE HOLY PLACES AT THIS DAY. 5 

crosswise, one over against the other, between posterns. 
Now I will name them to you as they follow. 

The Gate of David is towards the west, and it is exactly 
opposite to the Golden Gate, which is towards the east, 
behind the Templum Domini. This gate belongs to the 
Tower of David, wherefore it is called the Gate of David. 
Within this gate you turn to the right hand, into a street. 
IMear the David Tower, you can go to the Mount Sion 
[by a postern which is there]. In this street on the left hand, 
as you go towards the postern, is a church of St. James 
of Galicia, who was the brother of St. John the Evangelist. 
Here it is said St. James was beheaded, wherefore the 
•church was built at this spot.^ 



V. 

THE STREET OF DAVID— THE STREET OF THE PATRI- 
ARCH — THE GATE OF THE HOSPITAL HOUSE AND 
THE CHURCH OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE — THE 
STREET OF MOUNT SION — THE STREET OF HERBS— 
THE FISH MARKET — THE GREAT MARKET— THE 
GOLDSMITHS' SHOPS — TPIE PALMERS FROM BEYOND 
THE SEA — THE ABBEY OF ST. MARY THE GREAT — 
THE ABBEY OF ST. MARY LATIN — THE HOUSE OF 
THE HOSPITAL. 

The great road which goes from the Tower of David 

straight to the Golden Gate, this street is called [from 

there to the Exchange,] the David Street. On the left hand 

^ This is the present large Church of St. James in the Armenian 
monastery. In the north chapel is the supposed site of the beheading 
•of James the Greater by Herod. The church has a nave and two 
aisles and was built in the twelfth century. John of Wiirzburg 
mentions this church as belonging to the Armenians, and mentions 
5t. James's head there preserved. 



6 THE CONMTION OF THE CITY OF JERUSALEM 

of the Tower of David there is a large Place where the)r 
sell corn. On going a little farther down this David Street* 
one comes to a street on the left hand, which is called 
Patriarch Street, because the Patriarch dwells at the top- 
of it. There is a door on the right hand of the Patriarch 
Street, by which one can enter into the House of the Hos- 
pital. After this there is a door by which one enters 
into the Church of the Sepulchre, but it is not the Master 
Door. 

When you come to the Exchange where the David Street 
ends there is a street called Mount Sion Street,^ for it goes 
straight to Mount Sion ; and on the left of the Exchange 
is a covered street, vaulted over, called the Street of Herbs,^" 

^ David Street still preserves its name. The Exchange of the Latins 
(see Sect. XVI.) was in the bazaar south-east of the Muristan. The 
Corn Market was the present open market, east of the Tower of David. 
Patriarch Street is now called Christian Street. The west door of the 
Hospital is now covered up, the buildings of the Hospital being still 
concealed by mounds. It may, perhaps, have been where is now the 
entrance to the mosque east of the street, or, perhaps, further south. 
The Gate of the Holy Sepulchre Church mentioned in this section is 
the small gate, now closed, leading from the west side of the Rotunda 
into Christian Street on the level of the Latin Gallery. 

2 Mount Sion Street was the street leading south from the bazaar now 
called Harat el Juwiny (from a Moslem faction) and I'arik el Bab- 
Neby Daud. The Exchange of the Latins was at the point where 
a short passage, north and south, joins David Street to Temple Street 
(see Sect. XL). Mejr ed Din calls this Khan es Sarf, ' the Inn of the 
Exchange.' This is still the part of the city where the money-changers- 
have shops in David Street. 

8 The Street of Herbs is the street now called Suk el Lehham 
(* Butcher's Market ')? which has retained.the twelfth century vaulting. 
The market at the north end of the Street of Herbs appears to be now 
built over. The Street of the Palmers, where palms were sold, is that 
bounding the Muristan on the north. The goldsmiths seem to have 
occupied the little shops east of St. Mary the Great, at the corner of 
Palmer Street and the Street of Herbs. St. Mary the Great occupies 
the north-east quarter of the Muristan enclosure. The description 
carries us westwards, leaving St. Mary Latin to the right, north of 



AND THE HOLY PLACES AT THIS DA V. 7 

where they sell all the herbs, and all the fruits of the city, 
and spices. At the top of this street there is a place where 
they sell fish. And behind the Market where they sell 
the fish, is a very large Place on the left hand where 
cheese, chickens, and eggs [and birds] are sold. On the 
right hand of this Market are the shops of the Syrian 
gold-workers ; and here they sell the palms which the 
Pilgrims bring from beyond seas. 

On the left hand of the Market are the shops of the 
Latin gold-workers. At the end of these shops there is 
a nunnery, which was called St. Mary the Great ; after 
this Abbey of nuns is a monastery of Black Monks, called 
St. Mary the Latin. Then comes the House of the 
Hospital. Here is the Master Gate of the Hospital. 

VL 

THE PRINCIPAL GATE AND PLACE OF THE HOLY SEPUL- 
CHRE — THE CHURCH OF ST. JAMES OF THE JACOBINS 
— CALVARY — GOLGOTHA — THE CLOCK TOWER— THE 
CHAPEL OF THE HOLY TRINITY. 

To the right of the Hospital is the Master Gate of the 
Sepulchre. In front of this door of the Sepulchre is a 
very beautiful open space paved with marble. On the left 
hand of the Sepulchre is a church, called after St. James 
of the Jacobins.^ On the right hand, close to this Gate of 



Palmer Street, and passing the north gate of the Hospital, which still 
remains on the south side of Palmer Street, at the west end of the 
Church of St. Mary the Great. St. Mary Latin is now destroyed. 
Palmer Street is now called Haret ed Dabbaghin, from the dyers' 
shops. The modern buildings north of Palmer Street have recently 
been demolished (in 1887), and a pavement found, which may have 
belonged to St. Mary Latin. 

^ St. James of the Jacobites ; that is, of the followers of Jacob 
Baradaeus, a Syrian monk who died in a.d. 578, as Bishop of Edessa, 



8 THE CONDITION OF THE CITY OF JERUSALEM 

the Sepulchre, there are steps by which one ascends Mount 
Calvary. On the top of the mount is a most beautiful 
chapel. And there is another door in this chapel, by 
which one enters and descends into the Church of the 
Sepulchre, by other steps which are there, just as one goes 
into the church.^ 

On the right hand, below Mount Calvary, is Golgotha. 
On the left hand is the bell-tower of the Sepulchre, and 
a chapel which was called Holy Trinity. This chapel is 
very large, being the place where all the women of the 
city were married. And there is the font where they 
baptized all the children of the city. And this chapel is 
close to the Sepulchre, so that there was a door by which 
there is an entrance into the church. 



VII. 



THE MONUMENT — THE CHURCH OF THE HOLY SEPUL- 
CHRE — THE CHANCEL — THE CHOIR OF THE HOLY 
SEPULCHRE — THE ALTAR OF THE GREEKS — THE 
COMPASS. 

On the right of this door is the Tomb. At this place 
tvhere the Tomb is, the church is quite round, and it is 

and who converted the Syrian Church to the Eutychian or Mono- 
physite creed still held by this Church. The Patriarch of Antioch is 
still a Jacobite, and the Syrians have still a small chapel in the 
cathedral of the Holy Sepulchre, and a bishop in Jerusalem. The 
chapel mentioned in the text is the southern of three, west of the 
courtyard on the south side of the cathedral, and its name remains 
unchanged. 

" ^ The steps outside and inside the south wall of the Holy Sepulchre 
Cathedral, leading to Calvary, still remain. Golgotha is the 
Chapel of Adam, under the Calvary Chapel. The Holy Trinity 
Chapel a'djoined St. James' on the north, just south of the bell tower of 
the cathedral. 



AND THE HOLY PLACES AT THIS DA V. 9 

open from above without any covering ; and within the 
Monument is the Stone of the Sepulchre. And the Monu- 
ment is vauhed over. At the head of this Monument, just 
as at the head of an altar, outside, is an altar that they call 
the Chancel. There they daily chant mass at daybreak. 
There is a very beautiful place all around the Tomb, com- 
pletely paved : so that they can walk in procession round 
the Tomb. Beyond, towards the east, is the Choir^ of the 
Sepulchre, where the canons chant : it is long. Between 
the Choir where the canons are and the Monument there 
is an altar where the Greeks chant. And there is an en- 
closed place between the two, and there is a door by which 
one goes from the one to the other. In the midst of the 
Choir of the canons there is a block of marble, called 
the 'Compass.' Here they read the Epistle. 



VIII. 

CALVARY. 

On the right hand of the high altar of this Choir is 
Mount Calvary. In chanting the Mass of the Resurrection, 
the Deacon, when he comes to the Gospel, turns towards 
Mount Calvary at the word ' Crucifixum ;' after which he 
turns towards the tomb, when he says, * Surrexit, non est 
hie' Then he points with the finger at 'Ecce locus ubi 
posuerunt eum ;' and then, returning to the book, finishes 
the Gospel. 

1 The choir of the cathedral, built in the twelfth century, now 
belongs to the Greeks, but during the Frank rule they had only an 
altar east of the sepulchre. The ' chancel ' was on the site of the present 
Coptic Chapel. (See John of Wiirzburg, xii.) The ' compass,' which 
was regarded in the twelfth century as the middle of the world, is now 
represented by a sort of marble vase in the centre of the choir. 



lo THE CONDITION OF THE ClI V OF JERUSALEM 



IX. 

THE CANONS AND THEIR OFFICES — THE CLOISTER — THE 
CHAPEL OF ST. HELENA — THE DORMITORY AND 
REFECTORY. 

At the head of the Choir there is a door by which 
the canons entered into their places : on the right hand, 
between this door and Mount Calvary there is a very deep 
fosse, into which one descends by steps. Here there is 
a chapel called St. Helena,^ where St. Helena found the 
crosSj the nails, the hammer, and the crown. Into the 
fosse, at the time when Jesus Christ was on earth, they 
threw the crosses when the thieves had been crucified, 
and the limbs which they had cut off for their misdeeds. 
Whereupon they call this hill Mount Calvary, because here 
they carried out sentences and what the law ordered, and 
they cast upon this mountain the limbs which the male- 
factors were condemned to lose by law. When the canons 
came out from the Sepulchre, on the left hand was their 
dormitory ; on the right the refectory, which is close to 
Mount Calvary. Between these two offices is their Cloister 
and their walking-ground. And in the midst of this court 
there is a large opening, from which one could see into 
the chamber of Helena below, otherwise one would see 
nothing there. 

^ The Chapel of Helena retains some of the remains of the pre- 
Crusading chapel of the tenth century, or, perhaps, of the time of 
Modestus. The lantern above it stands in the open court, which in 
the twelfth century was in the centre of the Cloisters of the Canons 
which are now ruined. The whole account of the cathedral in the 
text is exact, and evidently written by one familiar with the building. 
The Chapel of Helena is lighted from above by windows in the 
lantern and would be otherwise dark, as noted in the text. The 
derivation of the name Calvary in the text is obscure ; the writer 
seems to connect it with the French word eschavoit. 



• AND THE HOLY PLACES AT THIS DA V. it 

X. 

THE STREET OF HERBS— THE STREET MAL-QUISINAT — 
THE COVERED STREET. 

Now that I have told you of the Sepulchre, how it is. 
I will come back to the Exchange. Before the Exchange, 
close to the Street of Herbs, is a street called Mal-quisinat. 
In this street they cooked food for the pilgrims, and sold 
it, and they washed their heads. And they went from this 
street to the Sepulchre. In front of this Mal-quisinat 
street there is a street called the Covered Street,^ where 
they sell stuffs : it is entirely vaulted over. And one 
goes by this street to the Sepulchre. 

XI. 

THE STREET OF THE TEMPLE— BUTCHER'S PLACE— THE 
HOSPITAL — THE STREET OF THE GERMANS — THE 
BRIDGE — THE CHURCH OF ST. GILES — THE GATE 
BEAUTIFUL. 

Now we will leave the Exchange and will go to the 
Golden Gate. The street by which one goes from the 

''■ The three covered streets here mentioned still remain. Malquisinat 
seems to have been in the middle and the covered street the eastern 
of the three (De Vogii^, however, makes Malquisinat the eastern-most). 
The Street of Herbs, as already noted, is now called Suk el Lehham ; 
Malquisinat is called Suk el 'Attarin (' Perfumers' Market '), and the 
covered street is called Suk el Khawajat ('the Merchants' or 'Pedlars' 
Market ')• There are barbers' shops at the north end of this triple 
line of vaulted streets, which illustrates the shaving of the pilgrims be- 
fore going to the Holy Sepulchre. In the text the word Malquisinat 
(otherwise Malcuisinat) seems to be connected with cicisinoit^ 'they 
cooked,' but it is not impossibly a Normanised Arab word (the use 
of such words being very common in Syria in the twelfth century). 
The original may be Umm el Khazneh or el Makhazneh, ' Mother of 
the Store,' or ' the Stores.' 



J 2 THE CONDITION OF THE CITY OF JERUSALEM. 

Exchange to the Golden Gate is the Street of the Temple '} 
this street was called the Street of the Temple, because one 
goes this way to the Temple as well as to the Golden Gate. 
Going down this street you come to Butchers' Place, on 
the left hand, where they sell the meat of the town. On the 
right hand there is another street, by which one goes to 
the German Hospital, which is called the Germans' Street. 
On the left hand, on the bridge, is a Church of St. Giles. 
At the top of this street there is a gate, called the Gate 
Beautiful, because by this gate Jesus Christ entered into 
the city of Jerusalem when He was on earth. The gate 
is in a wall between the wall of the city and the Golden 
Gate. 

xn. 

THE TEMPLE — THE PAVEMENT — THE PALACE OF SOLOMON 
— THE RESIDENCE OF THE TEMPLARS — THE CHURCH 
OF THE TEMPLUM DOMINI, AND THE ABBEY. 
The Temple^ is between the wall of the city and the wall 

1 The account is here clumsy. The Temple Street is now called 
Tarik Bab es Silsileh. The street going south is Haret el Meidan, 
which leads straight to the ruins of the hospice of the Knights of the 
Teutonic Order (German Hospital). St. Giles is not known. It 
was north of the causeway to Wilson's Arch : the oven of St. Giles is 
mentioned in the Cartulary of the Holy Sepulchre as being in Temple 
Street (p. 331). The bridge is apparently the causeway to ' Wilson's 
Arch': the rock levels taken at the north end of the street of the 
Germans in five places show that a scarp exists here, forming the 
south side of the Tyropoeon Valley. The mention of the bridge thus 
agrees with other indications (as, for example, with the words of 
Brocardus in 1283, ' Relictis tamen vestigiis prioris concavitatis ') in 
showing that the valley of the Tyropceon was not so much filled up in 
the Middle Ages as it now is. The Fortes Specieuzes (Porta Speciosa) 
is the mediaeval site of the Beautiful Gate of the Temple (Acts iii. 2). 
The wall described as between ihe city and the wall of the Golden 
Gate is the west wall of the Haram. The Porta Speciosa is the 
present Bab es Silsileh. It is mentioned in the same position by 
Saswulf, John of Wiirzburg, and Theodoricus. 

^ The Temple or Palace of Solomon was the Aksa mosque given to 



AND THE HOL V PLACES AT THIS DA V. ij 

of the Golden Gate. And there is a large space more 
than an arrow-shot long and a stone's-throw wide, before 
one comes to the Temple ; this place is paved, wherefore 
it is called the Pavement. Coming out from the gate on 
the right hand is the Temple of Solomon, where the 
Brothers of the Temple lived. Between the Gate Beautiful 
and the Golden Gate is the Church of the Templiun 
Domini ; and this is high, so that one mounts by steps. 
On ascending these steps, one finds a great area all paved 
with marble and very broad, and the pavement goes all 
round the Church of the Temple. The Church of the 
Temple is quite round; and on the left of the high 
pavement of the Temple is the dwelling-place of the abbot 
and the canons. In this part there are steps by which one 
ascends into the Temple from the low pavement to the 
high part. 

' XIIL 

THE CHAPEL WHERE ST. JAMES WAS MARTYRED— THE 
WOMAN WHO WAS A SINNER — THE GOLDEN GATE — 
THE GATE OF SOLOMON — THE GATE OF JEHOSAPHAT. 

Towards the east, close to the Church of the Temple, 
is the Chapel of St. James^ [the Apostle] the Less, be- 

the Knights Templars in i[i8. They built a refectory (Bak'at el 
Beida) on the west, and had their stables in the vaults (Solomon's 
stables) to the east. The Templum Domini is the present Dome of 
the Rock. The College of Canons of the Templum Domini was 
founded by Godfrey. The earhest abbot was Achard (i 112-1136 A.D.) ; 
the latest was Roger (1176). The upper pavement (or platform) and 
the lower still exist. 

^ The Chapel of St. James was the present Dome of the Chain, as 
is clear from John of Wiirzburg and Theodoricus. St. James was 
supposed to have been buried here ; but Theodosius (530 A.D.) places 
his tomb on Olivet. John of Wiirzburg seems to place the scene of 
the woman taken in adultery in the cave under the Sakhrah, which 
was called Confessio, where Saswulf says the disciples confessed them- 
selves to Christ. (See Part IL, p. 2)7-) The Gate of Jehosaphat, as 
already shown, is the present St. Stephen's Gate. 



14 THE CONDITION OF THE CITY OF JERUSALEM 

cause It was here he was martyred when the Jews threw 
him down from the Temple. Within this chapel is the 
place where Jesus Christ rescued the sinful woman whom 
they were about to slay because she was taken in adultery. 
And He asked her, when He had delivered her, where 
were those who had accused her, and she said that she 
knew not. Then He said she should go, and sin no more. 
At the end of this pavement, towards the rising sun, one 
goes down some steps to get to the Golden Gate. After 
descending these, is found a broad space reaching the 
Golden Gate. This Is the court which Solomon made. 
No one passed through these gates, which were walled-up, 
except twice a year, when the walling was removed, viz., 
on Palm Sunday — when they went In procession, because 
Jesus Christ passed there on this day, and was received In 
procession ; and on the day of the Feast of the Holy Cross 
in September, because the Cross was brought Into Jeru- 
salem through these gates, when Heracllus, the Emperor 
of Rome, made his conquests in Persia, and brought it 
back through this gate Into the city, being met by the pro- 
cession. Because no one ever went out of the city through 
this gate there was a postern at the side, called the Gate 
of Jehosaphat. Those who wished to get out of the city 
from this part went through this postern, and this postern 
is on the left hand of the Golden Gate. 



XIV. 

THE CHURCH CALLED THE CRADLE — THE CHURCH OF 
THE TEMPLE — THE FOUR GATES — THE ABBEY. 

On the south side you descend from the high pavement 
of the Temple to the lower part, whence one goes to the 
Temple of Solomon. On the left hand^ going below from 



AND THE HOLY PLACES AT THIS DA V. 15 

the high pavement, there is a church, called the Cradle.^ 
Here was the cradle in which God was nursed in His 
infancy, as they say. Now the Church of the Temple had 
four gates, crosswise.^ The first faces the west, and is 
the one by which persons enter from the city into the 
Temple ; and by the other towards the east you could enter 
into the Chapel of St. James, and through this one went 
out to the Golden Gate. By the gate facing the south 
you went towards the Temple of Solomon ; and into the 
Abbey by the gate facing the north. 

XV. 

THE GOLDEN GATE — THE GATE AND THE CHURCH OF 
ST. STEPHEN — THE ANERIE — THE LEPERS' HOUSE 
— THE POSTERN OF ST. LAZARUS. 

Now I have discoursed to you of the Temple and the 
Sepulchre as they are, and the Hospital and the streets 
which run from the Gate of David to the Golden Gate : 
the one right in front of the other, the one toward sunrise 
and the other towards sunset. Now I will tell you of the 
other two gates, of which one is over against the other. 
That towards the north is called the Gate of St. Stephen. 
By this gate entered the pilgrims into the city, and all 
those who by way of Acre came into Jerusalem, and by the 
way of land from the river on one side to the Sea of 
Ascalon on the other. 

^ The cradle is still shown in the south-east corner of the Haram in 
the vault, and is called Sarir 'Aisa, ' Christ's Cradle.' It is a Roman 
niche for a statue, laid flat. 

2 The four gates of the Templum Domini are the four doors of the 
Dome of the Rock, leading as stated in the text. The Abbey of the 
Canons occupied the north part of the Haram, and was apparently 
destroyed when the existing cloisters were built, but there are traces 
of Crusading work on this side. 



j6 the condition OF THE CITY OF JERUSALEM 

As one enters this gate, there is outside, on the right 

hand, the Church of St. Stephen.^ Here they say that St. 

Stephen was stoned. In front of this church, on the left 

hand, there was a large building, which was called the 

Anerie ; here the asses and the sumpter-horses belonging 

to the Hospital were accustomed to be stabled, hence its 

name of Anerie. This Church of St. Stephen was pulled 

down by the Christians of Jerusalem before they were 

besieged, because the church was close to the walls. The 

Anerie was not pulled down, but was afterwards of service 

to the pilgrims who came to Jerusalem during truce, when 

it was in the hands of the Saracens. For the Saracens 

would not let them sojourn within the city : for this reason 

the house of the Anerie was to them of great use. On the 

right hand of the Gate of St Stephen, near the wall, 

was the Hospital for the Lepers of Jerusalem. Close to the 

Hospital was a postern called the St. Lad re Postern. Here 

the Saracens led the Christians into the city, so that they 

could go covertly to the Sepulchre. For the Saracens did 

not wish that the Christians should see the business of the 

city ; wherefore they admitted them by the Gate which is 

in the street of the Holy Sepulchre, but would not admit 

them by the Master Gate. 

^ The Church of St. Stephen north of the Damascus Gate has dis- 
appeared. The Anerie, however, has been discovered lying on the 
west side of Jeremiah's grotto. The mangers are still recognisable 
inside its south wall. (See Jerusalem volume, ' Memoirs of the Survey 
of Western Palestine.') The Leper's hospital is also not recognisable, 
and the postern of St. Ladre (St. Lazarus) does not exist in the 
modern wall, which at this point (west of the Damascus Gate) stands 
somewhat south of the foundations of the Crusading wall. The 
Crusading Gate of St. Stephen was also apparently a little to the 
north of the present Damascus Gate, nearer to the Anerie, where the 
foundations of towers have been discovered. In speaking of the 
Maladrerie or Leper's Hospital as on the right of St. Stephen's Gate, 
our author supposes himself to be approaching the city from Acre> 
with the Anerie on the left or east of the road., 



AND THE HOLY PLACES AT THIS DA V. 17 

[But understand well, that of the Christian pilgrims who 
wished to go to the Sepulchre and the other Holy Plaaes 
the Saracens exacted great bargains, gifts and services. 
The Saracens charged them each for thirty bezants. But 
they afterwards excommunicated all the Christians whr» 
gave hire-money, service, bargains, and ransoms in order 
to visit the sacred places ; wherefore the Saracens did not 
receive so much as they were wont.] 

XVI. 

THE rOSTERN OF THE TANNERY — THE STREET OF ST. 

STEPHEN — THE STREET AND HOUSE OF THE HOLY 

SEPULCHRE — THE STREET OF THE CHURCH OF THE 

HOLY SEPULCHRE — THE EXCHANGE OF THE SYRIANS 

AND LATINS— THE THREE STREETS— THE COVERED 

STREET— THE STREET OF HERBS — AND THE STREET 

MAL-QUISINAT— THE STREET OF THE ARCH OF JUDAS 

— THE CHURCH OF ST. MARTIN AND ST. PETER. 

On entering the city by the Gate of St. Stephen you 

come to two streets, one on the right, which goes to the 

'Gate of Mount Sion, which is due south. And the Gate 

of Mount Sion is over against the Gate of St. Stephen 

The street on the left hand goes straight to a postern called 

the Tannery, and goes straight under the bridge. This 

street, which goes to the Gate of Mount Sion, is called 

the Street of St. Stephen, until you come to the Syrian 

Exchange.^ 

^ This repeats previous sections. The street to the Postern of the 
Tannery is the present Tarik Bab el 'Amud leading to the Bib el 
Magharibeh. The bridge under which it passed would seem to have 
been the causeway leading to Wilson's Arch. (See Section XI.) If 
-so, the remains now covered with debris would seem then to have 
been visible. St. Stephen Street was the street of Khan ez Zeit, 
"leading to the three covered streets. (See note to Section X.) 

2 



1 8 THE CONDITION OF THE CITY OF JERUSALEM. 

As one comes by the Syrian Exchange, there is on 
the right hand the Street of the Sepulchre.^ Here is 
the Gate of the House of the Sepulchre ; from there those 
belonging to the Sepulchre entered into their dwellings. 
In front of this Exchange, turning to the right, there is a 
covered vaulted street, by which one goes to the Church 
of the Sepulchre. In this street the Syrians sell their 
stuffs, and make wax candles. In front of the Exchange 
also they sell fish. To that Exchange the three streets 
join which also join the Latin Exchange. One of 
these is called the Covered Street. There the Latins 
sell their stuffs. The other is called the Street of Herbs, 
and the third Mal-quisinat. You go along the Street of 
Herbs to the street of Mount Sion, and thereby reach the 
Gate of Mount Sion, crossing the Street of David. 

By the Covered Street you go through the Latin Ex- 
change to a street called the Street of the Arch of Judas,, 
and you cross the street of the Temple, and this street goes 
straight to the gate of Mount Sion. This street is called the 
Street of the Arch of Judas, because they say Judas hanged 

^ The street of the Sepulchre appears to be that called Khot el 
Khankah. The House of the Sepulchre was probably a hospice at or 
near the present German Hospice. The Syrian Exchange was the 
present vaulted Kh^n ez Zeit, the walls of which still prese-^t mediaeval 
masonry and masons' marks ; the vaulted street to the Sepulchre has 
recently been recovered during the Russian excavations. (For the 
three covered streets see Section X., p. ii.) The street of the 
Arch of Judas is the Harat el Yehud, east of the Street of Mount 
Sion (Haret el Juwany). The Arch of Judas may have been one 
of the arches still covering the Harat el Yehud. Arculphus, in 
700 A.D., speaks of the arch from which Judas hanged himself, but 
places it outside the city in Wady Rababeh. The sites of the churches 
of St. Martin and St. Peter (called by other mediaeval writers St. Peter 
ad Vincula), both east of the Street of the Arch of Judas, are not 
known. St. Martin is mentioned in the Cartulary of the Holy 
Sepulchre (p. 331). It had a garden and an oven. John of Wiirzburg 
and John Poloner both notice St. Peter ad Vincula. 



AND THE HOLY PLACES AT THIS DA V. 19 

himself there upon a stone arch. On the left hand of this 
road is the Church of St. Martin ; and the Church of St. 
Peter is near this church, on the left hand. It was here, they 
say, that Jesus Christ made the mud which He placed upon 
the eyes of him who had never seen, and commanded that 
he should go away and should wash in the Pool of Siloam 
and he should see : this he did, and had eyes and saw. 

XVII. 

OUTSIDE THE GATE OF MOUNT SION — THE THREE ROADS 
— THE POOL OF SILOAM — THE CHURCH OF ST. 
PETER "IN GALLICANTE." 

Outside the gate of Mount Sion^ there are three ways 
One way, on the right hand, leads to the abbey and to the 
Church of Mount Sion. Between the abbey and the walls 
of the city there was a large area, and a church in the 
middle of it. The way on the left hand follows the wall 
of the city to the Golden Gate : thence one descends into 

^ The three roads still exist, one leading from the wall east of the 
Bab en Neby Dadd and of the Church of St. Sion (Coenaculum 
or Neby Daud) ; the second along the walls east;- the third west 
towards the Birket es Sultan. (See next section.) The site of 
St. Peter in Gallicante (i.e., ' of the cock-crowing') is marked by a 
ruined vault and wall. The site is mentioned first by Bernard the 
Wise (867 A.D.). Theodoricus mentions a picture of St. Peter here, 
and calls it (Section XXI.) 'the prison of Peter.' Saswulf calls it 'a 
deep crypt on the slope of Mount Sion.' According to Poloner and 
Maundeville, it was 187 or 140 paces from the house of Caiaphas, 
apparently shown on the present site of that house. The actual 
distance is 500 feet. The church in the graveyard may have stood at 
or near the present house of Caiaphas. There was a chapel of St. 
Saviour 50 paces from St. Sion in the sixth century {Theodosius), and 
John Poloner says it was the same as the House of Caiaphas. The 
Bordeaux Pilgrim (fourth century) mentions this house. On Marino 
Sanuto's map the place is called House of Caiaphas, ' now St. 
Saviour.' 



20 THE CONDITION OF THE CITY OF JERUSALEM 

the Valley of Jehosaphat and to the spring of Siloam. Near 
this gate on the right of this road is the Church of St. 
Peter ' in Gallicante.' And there was a deep pit in this 
church, where, it is said, St. Peter hid himself when he had 
denied Jesus Christ, and heard the cock crow, and there he 
wept. The straight road from this gate, to the south, 
goes over the mountain until the abbey is passed. When 
you have passed the abbey you can go down the hill and 
so on to Bethlehem. 

XVIII. 

THE GERMAN POOL — THE ACELDAMA — THE PATRIARCH'S 
POOL— THE LION'S BURIAL GROUND. 

As soon as you have descended the mountain, you 
come to a pool in the valley, which is called the German 
Lake because a German^ here collected the waters which 
descended the mountain-sides when it rained, and there 
they watered the horses of the city. In another part of the 
valley, on the left hand, near to this, there is a burying- 
place called Chaudemar,^ where they cast the pilgrims 

^ The Lac Germains is evidently the Birket es Sultan. Theodoricus 
calls this Nova Cisterna in 1172 a.d. The Cartulary of the Holy 
Sepulchre calls it Lacus Germani (No. 169 and No. 170), and says it 
was for the common use of Christians. The Moslem fountain on the 
dam dates from the time of Sultan Suleiman Ibn Selim, 1520-66 A.D. 
The German who made this new pool may perhaps have been one of 
the Teutonic Order, whose hospice was in the street of the Germans, 
as mentioned, p. 18. 

- Chaudemar, Choldemar, or Champ de mar, is now called 
Hakk ed Dumm (* blood-right '), Aceldama. This is a great fosse 
covered by a mediaeval vault on piers of rusticated masonry still 
existing on the south side of the Wady Rababeh. It is frequently 
described in the middle ages. The hill on which it is built was 
then called Mount Gyon, or Gihon. Maundeville calls it the 
charnel house of the Hospital of the Knights of St. John. The 
hospital received it from William, Patriarch of Jerusalem (Archives 



AND THE HOLY PLACES AT THIS DAY, 21 

who died in the Hospital of Jerusalem. This piece of 
ground containing the burying-place was bought with the 
money for which Judas sold Christ's body, according to the 
Scripture. Outside the gate of David, towards the west, 
there was a pool called the Pool of the Patriarch, where they 
collected the waters around to water the horses. Near to 
this was a charnel-ground called the Cemetery of the Lion. 
Now I will tell you v/hy they called it so. It happened, 
as they say, that, one day long ago, a battle was fought 
here, between this burying-place and Jerusalem, in which a 
great number of Christians were killed, and those of the 
city were going to burn them all next day on account of the 
stench. A lion, however, came by night, and conveyed 
them all to this ditch. And there was a church here where 
they daily prayed.^ 

XIX. 

THE ABBEY OF THE GEORGIANS, WHERE A PART OF THE 
CROSS WAS FOUND, AND WHAT KIND OF FOLK 
THEY ARE. 

Near to this, at the distance of a league, was an abbey 
of Georgians,^ where they said a piece of the cross was 

of Knights of St. John, 1143 A.D.). The vault was probably built 
by the knights. 

^ The Charnel of the Lion was the present cemetery round the Birket 
Mamilla. A Crusader's tomb is still visible in the little building called 
Kubbet el 'Abd in this cemetery. In 867 Bernard the Wise speaks of 
a church of St. Mamilla at this spot. A subterranean chapel was 
found here by Sir C. Wilson (Ord. Survey Notes, p. 68). This 
appears to be the Cavea Leonis of Marino Sanuto's map. The pool 
is called Patriarch's Pool in our text. Mejr ed Din says that the Jews 
called it Beth Millo, and Christians St. Babila. He, however, calls it 
Ma mm Allah (' Water from God'), or Bab Allah (' Gate of God '). 
Marino Sanuto calls it ' the Fountain of Gihon.' 

- This abbey is the present monastery of the Cross, which was sold 
by the Georgians to the Greeks. The church is mediaeval, and built 



22 THE CONDITION OF THE CITY OF JERUSALEM 

found. And the upright beam of the cross was found 
before the temple,, because it had remained near the temple, 
for it was brought from Lebanon with the timber for the 
Temple, for they could find no place where it fitted, being 
either too long or too short. Whence it came to pass, as 
they say, that when people came to the Temple and had 
their feet covered with -mud, they scraped their feet upon 
it. And it happened that one day there passed by 
a queen who saw it covered with mud, and cleansed it with 
' her own clothes and adored it. 

Now I will tell you of this piece of the wood, whence it 
came, as they tell in this country. It happened that when 
Adam lay on his dying bed he prayed one of his sons in 
the name of God that he would bring him a little branch 
of the tree whose fruit he had eaten when he sinned. The 
son brought it and Adam took it and put it into his mouth. 
When he had it in his mouth he set his teeth fast, and his 
soul departed, and they could not in any way tear this 
branch from his teeth, so wholly buried was it. The 
branch, as they say, took root, and became a fair tree, and 
when the deluge came it uprooted this tree and carried it 
to Mount Lebanon, and thence was it brought to Jerusalem 
with the other materials of which the Temple was built, 
which were cut upon Mount Lebanon. It happened, as 
they say, when Jesus Christ was put upon the cross that 
the head of Adam was within the wood, and when the 
blood of Jesus Christ flowed from his wounds, the head of 
Adam came forth from the wood and received the blood, 

for the Eastern rite. The pictures near the altar represent the history 
of the Cross much as described in the text. The legend was a favourite 
one in the middle ages, and is found in the Apocryphal Gospel of 
Nicodemus. The land of Avegia, or Avegine, is apparently near the 
Caspian. De Vogii^ thinks the word is a corruption for Amazon. 
Maundeville (fourteenth century) places Amazonia or Ferniny below 
Scythia from t..L Caspian sea to the river Thainy, 



AND THE HOL V PLACES A T THIS DA Y. 23 

which is the reason why on all the crucifixes which they 
make in the land of Jerusalem at the foot of the cross is a 
head in remembrance of Adam's head. 

Now I will tell you of the Georgians who are in the 
abbey where a piece of the cross was found, what folk they 
are, and to what country they belong. The country whence 
they come is called Avegia, and there are both a king and 
a queen, whereupon some people call it the Land of 
Feminie, for the queen rides out to war, and hasher host of 
her women just as the king has of his men. In this country 
the women have but one breast, and I will tell you why. 
When a girl is born and she is a little grown they destroy 
her right breast with a red-hot iron, and the left they leave 
her for the nursing of her children. And the reason why 
they destroy this right breast is that it should not hurt 
them to draw the bow when they are in battle. 

XX. 

EMMAUS. 

Three leagues from Jerusalem there is a fountain towards 
the setting sun, called the Fountain of Emmaus.^ There 
used to be a castle, and it happened, according to the 
Gospel, that our Lord went to the castle with two of the 
disciples after He was raised from the dead, and sat at this 
fountain to eat ; but they knew Him not until He brake 
bread. Then He vanished from them, and they returned 
to Jerusalem to the Apostles to make known to them how 
they had spoken to Him. 

^ This Emmaus is 'Amwas (Emmaus Nicopolis), which from the 
fourth century has been regarded as the Emmaus of the Gospel 
(Luke xxiv. 13). The Sinaitic text reads, ' a hundred and three score,' 
instead of ' three score ' furlongs from Jerusalem to Emmaus, which is 
about the distance of 'Amwas, but this is generally regarded as not 
agreeing with the requirements of the narrative in the Gospel. 



24 THE CONDITION OF THE CITY OF JERUSALEM 

XXI. 

THE STREET WHICH GOES TO THE POSTERN OF THE. 

TANNERY, THE STREET OF JEHOSAPHAT, THE 

SQUARE, THE GATE DOLOROUS, THE BROOK, THE 

CHURCH OF ST. JOHN THE EVANGELIST, THE 
CONVENT OF THE NUNS OF BETHANY. 

Now I return to the Gate of St. Stephen to the street 
running to the left hand, which reaches to the Tannery- 
Postern. After going some way along this street, you 
find a street on the left hand called the Jehosaphat Street,i 
a little further on one finds cross roads, where the road from 
the left comes from the Temple and goes to the Sepulchre. 
At the top of this way there is a gate over against the 
Temple, called the Gate Dolorous. By that gate passed out 
Jesus when they brought Him to Mount Calvary to crucify 
Him, therefore is it called the Gate Dolorous. On the right 
hand, at the crossing of the way, was the stream over 
which, as the Gospel bears witness, our Lord passed when 
He was brought to be crucified. The Church of St. John 
the Evangelist is here, and it has a large dwelling-house. 
The house and the church belonged to the nuns of 
Bethany, who dwelt there when there was war with the 
Saracens. 

xxn. 

JEWRY, THE' CHURCH OF ST. MARY MAGDALENE, A 
POSTERN, THE CHURCH OF REST, THE PRISON, 
PILATE'S HOUSE, ANOTHER POSTERN. 

I now return to the Street of Jehosaphat. Between the 
Street of Jehosaphat and the walls of the city on the left 

^ The Jehosaphat street leading to the gate so called (Section 
XIII.) is the eastern part of the Via Dolorosa. The Gate Dolorous is 
thought by De Vogiie to be the Ecce Homo Arch ; but the position 
of the Church of St. John is not known. The cross roads seem lo 
be at the corner of the Via Dolorosa, south of the Armenian Catholic 
Monastery. (No. 27, Ordnance Survey.) 



AND THE HOL V PLACES A T THIS DA V. 25 

hand there arc streets as far as the Gate of Jehosaphat, like a 
city. There dwelt most of the Syrians of Jerusalem, and the 
streets were called * Jewry.'^ In this Jewry was a Church of 
St. Mary Magdalene, and near to the church was a postern, 
by which one could not go outside to the fields, but one 
went between two walls. At the right of the Street of 
Jehosaphat there was a church called the Church of Rest. 
Here, it is said, Christ rested when they brought Him to be 
crucified. And here was the prison into which He was put 
the night He was taken in Gethsemane. A little in front 
on the left hand of this street was the house of Pilate. 
Before this house, there was a postern by which one could 
enter into the Temple. 

xxni. 

THE ABBEY OF ST. ANNE, THE SHEEP POOL. 
On the left, near to the Gate of Jehosaphat, there is 
a nunnery called St. Anne's. In front of the nunnery 
there is a fountain called the P00I.2 Over the fountain 

^ The Jewry, or Jews' quarter, was apparently the present Moslem 
quarter in the N.E. corner of the city, and not, as now, the south 
quarter. The ruins of the Crusading Church of St. Mary Magdalen 
(el Mamiiniyeh) still remain. The Magdalen postern was near the 
present closed gate Bab ez Zahrah. The church called Repos, or 
Rest, is placed by De Vogiid at the corner of the Via Dolorosa, where 
the old map of 1322 shows the Spasma Virginis, or place where Our 
Lady fainted (No. 27, Ordnance Survey). This is, however, doubtful. 
Dr. Tobler supposes the small chapel in the barracks at N.W. angle of 
the Haram to be intended. The place Ubi S. Maria Quievit (John of 
Wiirzburg) may be the same. The prison appears to have been on the 
site of the present Chapel of the Flagellation, north of the Haram 
Barracks. The Pilatus is shown by Marino Sanuto north of the Ecce 
Homo arch on his map, which seems to agree with the present text and 
with th2 account of Anselm in 1509 A.D., of the position of Pilate's 
House ; but the Pretorium of Pilate has generally been shown where 
the Haram Barracks now stand. This would be the position of the 
postern leading to the Temple from the Pilatus. 

- The site of Bethesda appears here to be a cistern beside St. Anne's. 



c6 T^E CONDITION OF THE CITY OF JERUSALEM 

was a church. This fountain does not flow, but is in 
a fosse below the church. In the time of Jesus Christ it 
happened that the angel sometimes came into this foun- 
tain to move the waters, and the first who came down to 
bathe in it after the angel had moved it was cured of what- 
ever infirmity he had. This fountain had five porches, and 
before these porches lay many sick and languishing persons 
waiting the movement of the water, and it came to pass 
that Jesus Christ came one day and found there a man, and 
Jesus Christ asked him if he wished to be cured. And he 
replied to Him, ' Sir, I have no man who will help me to go 
down into the fountain when the angel has moved the 
water ; and when he has moved it and I strive to go down 
from my bed to get there, I find another who has bathed in 
it before me.' Then came Jesus Christ and told him to 
take up his bed and go, for he was healed. And he leaped 
up whole, and went away. This day was Saturday accord- 
ing to the Gospels. 

XXIV. 

THE ABBEY OF THE VALLEY OF JEHOSAPHAT, THE 
CHURCH AND SEPULCHRE OF OUR LADY, THE 
CHURCH OF GETHSEMANE, THE CHURCH OF SAINT 
SAVIOUR, THE HERMITS AND RECLUSES OF THE 
VALLEY OF JEHOSAPHAT. 

From the Gate of Jehosaphat one goes down into the 
Valley of Jehosaphat. On the right hand of this gate is 
the Golden Gate. In the Valley of Jehosaphat there was 
an abbey of Black Monks. In this abbey was the Church 
of the Holy Mary,^ and in the church the sepulchre in 

(See page 38.) This is one of the sites which have often changed, as 
has that of St. Stephen's martyrdom, etc. Compare the * Bordeaux 
Pilgrim.' 
^ The Church of the Virgin's Tomb has been already noticed. It 



AND THE HOLY PLACES AT THIS DA V. 27 

which she was buried, and there it is still. When the 
Saracens conquered the city they pulled down the abbey, 
and carried off the stones to fortify the city; but they did 
not pull down the church. In front of this church, at the 
foot of Mount Olivet, there was a church in a rock, which 
was called Gethsemane, where Jesus Christ was taken. 
On the other side of the way, ascending Mount Olivet for 
about a stone's-throw, was the Church of the Holy Saviour.. 
Here Jesus Christ went to pray the night He was taken 
And there the sweat of His body was like blood. In the 
Valley of Jehosaphat were hermits and recluses along the 
other side of the valley, more than I can tell to you, as far 
as the Pool of Siloam. 

XXV. 

THE ABBEY OF THE MOUNT OF OLIVES, THE CPIURCH 
OF PATERNOSTER, THE ACCURSED FIG-TREE^ BETH- 
PHAGE. V 

On the summit of Mount Olivet there was an abbey 
of White Monks.^ Near to this abbey, on the right, there 
was a way leading to Bethany, all along the side of the 

remains almost complete as it stood in the twelfth century, which is 
accounted for by the fact mentioned in the text that the Saracens did 
not destroy it. The church was rebuilt by Queen Melisinda, wife of 
King Fulk, and her tomb is still to be seen there. Gethsemane seems 
not to have been in its present position, but at the present Grotto of 
the Agony ; St. Saviour was close to the Church of St. Mary. The 
hermits in the Kedron Valley are mentioned by several mediaeval 
writers. They lived in the old rock-cut tombs on the east side of the 
ravine, and the crosses which they cut on the walls of these tombs 
can still be seen. 

1 The Church of the Ascension on Olivet was rebuilt by the 
Crusaders. The Pater Noster Chapel stood close to the modern 
chapel of the same name. The cursed fig-tree is shown on Sanuto's 
map at the first turn of the southern road to Bethany from Jerusalem. 
The Bethphage Chapel has been rediscovered with mediaeval frescoes 
representing the entry into Jerusalem. 



28 THE CONDITION OF THE CITY OF JERUSALEM, 

mountain. At the bend of this way on the right hand 
there was a church called St. Paternoster. Here, it is said, 
Jesus Christ made the Paternoster, and taught it to His 
Apostles. Near here was the fig-tree which God cursed 
when He went into Jerusalem, because the Apostles went 
to gather figs, and found none upon it, and it was not the 
time when there should have been figs. This same day Jesus 
Christ returned from Jerusalem to go into Bethany, and 
the Apostles went to the fig-tree and found it withered. 
Between the Church of St. Paternoster and Bethany, on 
the side of the mountain, was a church called Bethphage. 
Thither came Jesus Christ on Palm Sunday, and thence 
sent two of His disciples to find the ass, and thence He. 
went upon the ass which they had brought Him, to 
Jerusalem. 

XXVI. 

THE WRITER DOES NOT NAME THE ABBEYS AND 
CHURCHES NOT OBEDIENT TO ROME. 

Now I have spoken of the abbeys and monasteries of 
Jerusalem, those without and within Jerusalem, and the 
Latin streets ; but I have not named the monasteries and 
churches of the Syrians, nor of the Greeks, Jacobins, 
Boamins,^ Nestorians, nor Armenians, nor of the other people 
who rendered no obeisance to Rome, of whom were many 
abbeys and churches in the city. For I did not wish to 
say anything of those people I have named who do not 
render obeisance to Rome. 

1 The Boamins is, perhaps, a mistake for Jorians, the word already 
used (Section XIX.) for the Georgians, the only sect of the Easterns 
not enumerated. 



THE SECOND PART. 



OF THE FILGRIMAGES IN THE HOLY LAND. 

[We have told you how the Holy City was, on the day 
when Saladin and the other Saracens won it from the 
Christians. Next, we will speak of the pilgrimages ; how 
the pilgrims went to it. Those wha. are of the West, that 
is to say, of the Kingdom of France, and of Germany, and 
of the other lands which are in that part of the world, who 
would go to the Holy Land, must take the straight way to 
the East.] 

First one goes from Acre to Cayphas, which is four 
leagues.^ Near this is the Mount of Carmel, where is 

1 The pilgrim is starting from Acre and first reaches Caiffa or Haifa. 
In order to get an idea of the reliability of the distances, we may here 
compare all those mentioned in this work with the actual distances. 

Leagues. " English IMiles. 

Acre to Cayphas - - 3 'Akka to Haifa - - - 9 
Cayphas to Castle Pilgrim 3 Haifa to 'Athlit - - 9 

Castle Pilgrim to Ccesarea- 5 'Athlit to Kaisarieh - - 14 
Csesarea to Assur - 9^0 Kaisarieh to Arsuf 



- 2q3 I 



Assur to Jaffa - - - 3 V ^j Arsuf to Yafa - - - i o 

Jaffa to Ascalon - - 8 ) H Yafa to 'Askalan - - 29 ' H 

Ascalon to Gaza - - 3 'Askalan to Ghazzeh - -11 

Jaffa to Rames - - - 3 Yafa to Ramleh - -11 

Rames to Betenuble - - 5 Ramleh to B. NuHa - - 10 

Betenuble to Mount Joy - 5 B. Nuba to Neby Samwil - 9 

■Jerusalem to Bethany - i El Kuds to el 'Aziriyeh - i 

Jerusalem to Ouarantania - 7 El Kuds to J. Koruntul - 13 

Jericho to River Jordan - 7 Riha to esh Sheriah - - 5 

Jerusalem to St. Elias - i El Kuds to Mar Elias - 3 



30 THE CONDITION OF THE CITY OF JERUSALEM 

Monseigneur St. Denis, who was born at a town which is 
called Franchville, at which place is a chapel, and under 
the altar a little cave, where he was born, and the place is 
still to be seen. Near the chapel in a little valley, a stone's- 
throw off, is the spring of Monseigneur St. Denis, which 
he found and made with his own hands. And it is a very 
fair place, and the most wholesome place for man on all 
the mountain.^ 

On this same mountain is the Abbey of St. Margaret^ 

Leagues. English Miles. 

Bethlehem to Shepherd's B. Lahm to er Ravvat - i 

Chapel - - - - I 
St. John to Emmaus - - 2 'Ain Karim (?) to 'Amwas- 11 
Jerusalem to St. Cross - i El Kuds to D. es Salib - i 
Jerusalem to Naples - - 12 El Kuds to Nablus - 30 

Naples to Sebasti - - 2 Nablus to Sebastieh - - 5 
Sebasti to Mount Tabor - 10 Sebastieh to Jebel et Tor - 30 
Acre to Safran - - - 3 'Akka to Shefa 'Amr - - 10 
Safran to Sepphoris - - 3 Shefa 'Amr to Seffurieh - 7 
Sepphoris to Nazareth - l Seffurieh to Nasrah - - 3 
Nazareth to Cana - - 3 Nasrah to Kh. Kana - - 8 
Nazareth to Tabor - - 3 Nasrah to Jebel el Tor - 6 
Tabor to Hermon - - i Jebel el Tor to Jebel Dahy 4 
Nain to Sea of Galilee - 3 Nein to Bahr Tabariya - 13 
Tiberias to Saphet - - 3 Tabariya to Safed - - 13 
Saphet to St. George- - 5 Safed to el Khudr - - 14 
St. George to Acre - - 4 El Khudr to 'Akka - -11 
This account forms a very complete itinerary of the pilgrimages 
usually undertaken in the Holy Land. 

Taking the league as three English miles, it will be seen that the 
majority of distances are remarkably exact, being generally a little 
longer than the actual measurement as the crow flies, because they 
are taken apparently along the roads. From Ca^sarea to Arsuf is over- 
estimated five miles, but the total from Ccesarea to Ascalon is correct. 
The mountainous road from Beit Nuba to Neby Samwil is estimated 
too long. Bethany is much too far from Jerusalem, and the distances 
to Quarantania and Jordan (which were less well known, no doubt) 
are wrong, as is the position of the Shepherd's Chapel. 

^ The exact site of this Church of St. Denys is not clear ; it may be 
the present el Khudr at the foot of Mount Carmel. 



AND THE HOLY PLACES AT THIS DAY, 31 

which is of Greek monks, which is also a fair place.^ In 
this abbey are good relics, and on the slope is the place 
where St. Elias dwelt, at which place there is a chapel in 
the rock. Near this Abbey of St. Margaret, on the slope 
of this same mountain, is a very fair place and delicious 
where dwell the Latin hermits, who are called Brethren of 
Carmel ; where is a little church of our Lady, and through- 
out this part there are plenty of good waters, which issue 
from the very rock of the mountain ; and it is a league and 
a half from the abbey of the Greeks to the Latin hermits. 

Between St. Margaret and the Brethren of CarmeL is a 
place above the sea called Anne, where the nails were 
made with which our Lord was crucified, and the place 
still appears where they were forged f and near this 
mountain of Carmel, between the Latin hermits and 
Castle Pilgrim, is a place called St. John of Tyre.^ Here 
is a Greek church with very fair relics, and here St. John 
wrought fair miracles. Near which towards Castle Pilgrim 
is a village called Capharnaon, where were struck the 
pence for which God was sold.* 

From Cayphas to Castle Pilgrim is three leagues, and it 
stands by the sea, and belongs to the Order of the Temple, 
and there lies St. Euphemia, Virgin and Martyr.^ 

^ St. Margaret was at the present ruin ed Deir ; the Chapel of Elias 
being the rock cut chapel by 'Ain Umm el Faruj. The Latin hermits 
of Carmel lived near the present monastery, which is two miles from 
St. Margaret's. St. Margaret's was built in A.D. 1209. 

2 Anne, perhaps 'Ain, probably 'Ain es Sih, north of St. Margaret's. 

^ St. John of Tyre was clearly near the present Tireh, perhaps at 
the ruin called el Keniseh ('the Church '), west of Tireh. 

"* This is out of place. Capharnaon, mentioned also in the Itinerary 
of King Richard (Book iv. ch. 12), is probably Kefr Lam, south of 
Castle Pilgrim or 'Athlit. 

° Castle Pilgrim was built by the Templars in a.d. 1218 ; it is now 
called 'Athlit. The tomb of St. Euphemia in the fifth century was 
shown at Chalcedon (Scutari). 



32 THE CONDITION OF THE CITY OF JERUSALEM 

From Castle Pilgrim to the city of Caesarea is five 
leagues, which city is by the sea, and is that of a Baron of 
the Kingdom. Outside the walls of the city is a chapel, 
where lies St. Cornelius, whom St. Peter baptized, who 
was, after Monseigneur St. Peter, archbishop of this city. 
Near this chapel is a very fair stone of marble, great and 
long, which is called the Table of Jesus Christ, and there 
are two little stones, which are round, large below, and 
pointed above, which are called the candlesticks of our 
Lord.^ In this chapel lie the two daughters of Mon- 
seigneur St. Philip, who converted and baptized the 
Eunuch, and when he had baptized him God caught him 
up and carried him to Assur,^ and from Assur he came 
preaching in the name of our Lord even to the city of 
Caesarea. 

Near which to the left hand, near a town called Pein 
Perdue,^ is a chapel of our Lady, which is over a marsh, 
where they very often go from Caesarea in pilgrimage, for 
it is a fair place and very devout. In which marsh are 
many cocatrlces which a lord of Caesarea put there, having 
had them brought from Egypt. 

From Caesarea to Assur* is nine leagues, which castle is 
very near the sea on a hillock of sand, and this castle 

1 Possibly these candlesticks and table may have been the two goal 
posts and large square block of stone in the hippodrome of Ccesarea. 
Only one goal post remains. It tapers conically, as described in the 
text, but this and the large cubical block are of granite, not of marble. 
' 2 Assur is here an error for Ashdod. The same mistake was made 
by others, as Foucher of Chartres notes about A.D. i loo. The true 
site of Ashdod at Esdud was, however, well known in the twelfth 
century. 

3 The only place where crocodiles are now found is the Crocodile 
river, north of Caesarea. 

4 Assur is Arsuf, where the ruins of the Crusading town and harbour 
still remain. It was wrongly identified with Dor or Antipatris as well 
as with Ashdod. 



AND THE HOL V PLACES A T THIS DA V. 33 



belonged to the Hospital. On which upper road is a rock 
cuttingi (Roche-taillie), and here is an evil passage, and 
there evil men without faith abide, to rob and to stop the 
way of those who go to Jaffa. 

From Assur to Jaffa, which is a town and castle, is three 
leagues, and the castle is by the sea, and it is a County. 
At Jaffa, under a castle in the church of St. Peter, is found 
the cloak {perro)if of St. James of Galicia. 

From Jaffa to Ascalon is eight leagues, and it lies by the 
sea, and the Bishop of Bethlehem used to be called Bishop 
of Ascalon, but for the dignity of the place Bethlehem, the 
bishopric was translated from Ascalon to the holy place 
Bethlehem ; and there still is the bishop's chair in the 
church of Monseigneur St. Paul, with all its belongings. 

From Ascalon to Gaza is three leagues, which city stands 
by the sea called of Gaza ; of which the strong Samson brake 
the gates and bare them to a hill very far from the town. 

From Jaffa to Rames^ is three leagues ; Rames is a city 
and bishopric. In the plain of Rames King Baldwin, King 
of Jerusalem, and five horsemen, went against Saladin,who 
had thirty horsemen, and there they brought the holy true 
cross on which our Lord suffered death in Jerusalem' and 
there was seen Monseigneur St. George openly in that 
battle, where first the king smote the Saracens : which 
battle was fought on the day of the Feast of St. Catherine.^ 

^ Roche-taillie, now Nahr el Falik (' River of the Cleft '), is mentioned 
also in the Itinerary of King Richard (Book iv. chap. 16). The cutting 
is artificial, draining the swamps inside the cliffs which extend along 
the shore. 

^ Perron. Other texts read Peron, and speak of his crossing the 
sea on it. 

' Rames is Ramleh, which in the middle ages was by some supposed 
to be Ramah, the home of Samuel (cf. Benjamin of Tudela). 

* The battle referred to was that in which King Baldwin the Leper 
defeated Saladin. The Christians advanced from Ascalon and routed 
a superior force of Saracens. 

3 



34 THE CONDITION OF THE CITY OF JERUSALEM 

From Rames to Betenuble is five leagues. Betenuble is 
a large town.^ 

From Betenuble to Mount Joy^ is five leagues. On 
Mount Joy is the church of St. Samuel the Prophet. It is 
three leagues to Jerusalem, going in by St. Stephen's gate, 
and there by right should be the Holy Sepulchre of our 
Lord. 

II. 

OF JERUSALEM. 

Near to which, that is to say in the choir, where is the 
compass of our Lord, is also the place where Nicodemus 
and Joseph from Arimathea placed His blessed body, 
when He was buried after His blessed Passion.^ [When 
He had been placed on the cross, there was He anointed 
and wound in grave clothes.] Going out on the left hand 
of the choir is Mount Calvary, where God was placed on 
the cross, and beneath is Golgotha, where the precious 
blood of our Saviour fell on the head of Adam. [There 
Abraham sacrificed to our Lord. There our Lord said to 
the thief, who repented and cried for vaQVcy^* Ameity dico 

* Betenuble, now Beit Nuba, is often mentioned in the Itinerary of 
King Richard. 

2 Mount Joy was the mediaeval name of Neby Samwil. Maunde- 
ville says it was so named because ' it gives joy to pilgrims' hearts, for 
from that place men first see Jerusalem.' A fine Crusading church 
was built over the supposed tomb of Samuel at this place. It is not 
clear whether the three leagues count from Jerusalem to Mount Joy 
or from Jerusalem to Betenuble ; neither is quite correct. Jerusalem 
is twelve miles (four leagues) from Beit Nuba and only five miles (less 
than two leagues) from Neby Samwil, but as there is a deep valley to 
cross, it is probable that the distance is intended to be that from Neby 
Samwil, and is over-estimated on account of the time required for 
crossing this valley. 

3 The Stone of Unction is evidently intended. In this section on 
Jerusalem none of the notes given in the first part are repeated. 



AND THE HOL V PLACES A T THIS DA Y. 35 

tibi, to-day shalt thou be with Me in Paradise.' There 
Longinus received his wish of our Holy Lord, whom he 
saw with his eyes.] 

Near the js^allery beside the high altar beneath Mount 
Calvary, is the pillar where our Lord was bound and 
scourged •} there, descending forty steps, is the place where 
my lady St. Helena found the true cross. Near the choir, 
issuing on the right hand of the Sepulchre, is the prison 
of our Lord, and there should be the chain wherewith He 
was bound. [In that place He first appeared to Mary 
Magdalene after the Resurrection.^] On the other side, at 
the entry to the Sepulchre, there are forty-two steps to the 
chapel of the Greeks, in which chapel used to be the holy 
true cross, which was there found, and the image of our 
Lady which spoke to Mary the Egyptian and converted her. 
[To the right of the high altar all above was the true cross. 
On the eve of Easter, when the hour of noon was past, 
when the sun touched the arm of the image of St. Gabriel, 
which was painted above the Sepulchre, came the Holy 
Fire from heaven and caught one of the lamps of the 
sepulchre.] 

And next opposite to this way out from the Sepulchre 

^ The pillar of scourging has been shown at various times in very- 
different parts of the city. It is now shown in the Chapel of the 
Mocking, east of the choir of the cathedral. In the fourth century it 
was shown on Sion, but the pillar was by some thought to come from 
the Pr^torium of Pilate. 

^ The prison and the place of the Apparition to Mary Magdalene 
are still shown in the positions mentioned in the text on the north 
side of the Holy Sepulchre Cathedral. The Greek Chapel next 
noticed appears not to be the present Greek Chapel of Calvary, but 
the chapel on the place where Mary the Egyptian was converted, as 
now shown south of the Latin Chapel of Calvary just outside the 
south wall of the cathedral. The holy fire miracle is mentioned by 
Bernard the Wise as early as 867 A.D., by Masudi in 943 A.D., and by 
Abu el Faraj in 1008 A.D. 

3—2 



36 THE CONDITION OF THE CITY OF JERUSALEM 

outside, towards the north north east (bise), is the church 
of St. Caristo^ [who has lain in earth eight hundred years]. 
Towards the south, near this, is the Church of our Lady 
the Latin, the first church which ever was Latin in Jeru- 
salem, and therefore is it called Latin, and it is of Black 
Monks. [And there they say St. Mary Magdalene and 
the other Mary Cleophas tore their hair when God was 
placed on the cross.] Near which is the house of the 
Hospital of St. John. 

TBefore the Sepulchre, as far as two bow-shots towards 
the east, is the Templum Domini, where are four entrances 
and twelve gates. In the midst of the Temple is the great 
Sacred Rock, w^here was the ark of our Lord in the time 
of David, and there were the Old Testament and the 
rod of Aaron, and the seven candlesticks of gold, and the 
pot of manna which came from heaven, and the fire which 
used to devour the sacrifices they made there, and the 
tables of the old covenant, and the oil which dropped 
wherewith kings and prophets were anointed. On this 
rock slept Jacob,^ and saw the angels ascend to heaven and 
descend by a ladder. [On this rock, when David numbered 
the people, appeared the angel with the sword, wherewith 

* St. Caristo appears to be the St. Chariton of John of Wiirzburg and 
of Maundeville. It was converted into a hospice by Saladin, and 
named el Kalanderieh after Sheikh Ibrahim el Kalanderi. It was 
given to the Kalendars in 1391 by Silt Tonshuk (Mejr ed Din), and 
is now called Khankat Salah ed Din. on the south side of Khot el 
Khankah just north of the Holy Sepulchre Cathedral. St. Chariton 
died in his Laura at Khureitun, near Tekoa, in 410 A.D. This gives 
the date of the present work as appraximately 12 10 A.D., agreeing 
with the notice of St. Margaret's and of Castle Pilgrim before men- 
tioned. (See p. 31.) 

2 The identification of the Sakhrah, or holy ' rock ' with the stone 
of Bethel is not peculiar to this account. Maundeville alludes to this 
belief, John of Wiirzburg controverts it, and places Bethel near 
' Mahumcriam Majorem,' or Bireh, in its right place (Beitin). 



AND THE HOLY PLACES AT THIS DAY. 37 

he slew the people. There our Lord placed Himself when 
the Jews would take Him, and the rock rose and made 
a place for Him, and a star came down before Him and 
gave Him light.^ Within the gate towards the south 
was the fountain of which they sing between Easter and 
Pentecost, Vidi aqiiain egredientein de templo a latere dextro, 
etc. On the pinnacle of the temple our Lord suffered that 
the Devil should put Him to tempt Him. From the 
pinnacle of the temple was St. James thrown, who first 
was Bishop of Jerusalem. On the pavement of the temple, 
without, was an altar, where the Jews by the ancient law 
used to sacrifice turtle-doves and pigeons.^ On one side 
of the rock the Son of God was offered, and beneath was 
the Holy of Holies. There our Lord pardoned the sin of 
the woman taken in adultery. There was St. John Baptist 
announced, and hard by is the chapel of St. James> the 
first bishop of Jerusalem.] Outside the temple is an altar, 
where Zacharias, the son of Barachias, was slain — that 
is between the temple and the altar.* At the entrance of 
the temple is the Gate Beautiful, towards the west ; and 
towards the south is the temple of Solomon. Beside the 
temple of Solomon, towards the east, is the Bath of our 

^ The footprint of Christ on the rock was shown in the twelfth century 
where Muhammad's footprint is now shown. 

^ Perhaps El Kas and its aqueduct. 

' This ahar is mentioned by Fetellus (1151 7 A.D.) as having been 
turned into a sundial by the Saracens. It seems to have been on the 
spot south-west of the Dome of the Rock, and on the platform, where 
ihe sundial is shown on the Ordnance Survey, but this sundial has 
recently been removed. Theodoricus, however, in 1172 places the site 
south-east of Templum Domini. 

^ Compare the ' Bordeaux Pilgrim/ who speaks of the same site 
in the fourth century. John of WUrzburg also mentions the sundial 
formerly an altar, and says that the Saracens prayed there, and 
that Zacharias son of Barachias was buried there twenty-two paces 
from the Templum Domini, 



38 THE CONDITION OF THE CITY OF JERUSALEM 



Lord/ in the corner of the city [in the angle within the 
court of the temple.] To the east of the Templum Domini 
is the gate they call Jerusalem,^ and there outside appear 
the prints of the ass which God rode the day of the Flower 
Passover [Pasqiies flories), and beneath are the Golden 
Gates. 

At the north-east exit of the Temple is the Gate of 
Paradise and the fountain. On this side, beside the wall of 
the Temple, is the Probatica Piscina (Sheep Pool). [This 
was a cistern where the angel used to enter and move the 
water for the healing of the first sick person who entered 
it.^ Near to this is St. Anne and her monument, and 
some say that that is the Probatica Piscina.] Beyond St. 
Anne is the Church of St. Mary Magdalene. 

Towards the south, above the City of Jerusalem, is Mount 
Sion. There was the great church, which is thrown down, 
where our Lady died, and thence the Apostles bore her to 
Jehosaphat ; and before it is a chapel where our Lord 
was judged, and beaten, and tormented, yea with thorns 
tormented and crowned ; this was the Pretorium of 

* Balnea Christi is another name for the Cradle of Christ, already 
noticed in the first part of this text. (See p. 15.) 

- The name Jerusalem is here given to a gate near the Golden 
Gate. It is curious that there was a place in Jerusalem specially 
called 'Jerusalem ' in the middle aj^es. Sanuto on his map writes the 
name just west of the Haram, but Maundeville says that within the 
east gate of the Temple ' is the place where our Lord said, " Here is 
Jerusalem.'" Theodoricus (1172 a.d.) says, * Behind the opening of 
this gate (east of Templum Domini) to the left, a certain quadrangle 
occurs five feet long and broad, wherein the Lord standing and being 
asked where was the middle of the earth which they said was in 
Jerusalem, replied, "This place itself is called Jerusalem."' 

^ The Piscina Interior on Sanuto's map is shown close to St. Anne's 
(see p. 25) and has quite recently been found 100 feet N.W. of St. Anne. 
(See note, p. 65.) The author, however, here gives us an alternative site 
for the Sheep Pool at the present Birket Israil. The north gate of the 
Dome of the Rock still bears the name I-abelJenneh, or 'Paradise Gate.' 



AND THE HOL Y PLACES AT THIS DA Y, 39 

Caiaphas and his house. Under the great church, which 
is overthrown, is the Chapel of the Holy Ghost ; there the 
Holy Ghost descended on the Apostles. There is the place 
where our Lord washed the feet of His Apostles, the trough 
{pile) is still there. There God entered, the doors being 
closed, and said to them pax vobis. Then said He to St. 
Thomas, * Put forth thy hand and thy finger, and be not 
unbelieving/^ On Mount Sion Solomon was anointed. 

There, in the valley beneath the city, is the swimming 
pool (Natatoria) of Siloam, and near it St. Isaiah is laid.^ 
Near which is Aceldamach, that is, the place which was 
bought for thirty pence for which our Lord was sold, and it 
is the sepulchre where they lay the pilgrims. 

Under the Golden Gates, in the valley, runs a brook 
which is called Cedron ; thence David gathered the five 
stones wherewith he slew Goliah f and there is Jehosaphat, 
where our Lady was laid. Hard by is Gethsemane, the 
place where God was taken : there are seen the ten fingers 
of our Lord in a stone, there He left St. Peter, and St. James, 
and the other disciples and Apostles, when He went to 
pray to God the Father ; and there, about a stone's-throw 
off, is the place where God prayed to God the Father, and 
there He sweated drops of blood which fell to earth ; and 
there were laid St. Peter, and St. James, and St. Simeon, 
and Zachariah the prophet.* On the slope of this valley 

^ See notes to Part I. (pp. 2, 19) on St. Sion and Sf. Saviour. 
^ The tree of Isaiah is still shown close to the Pool of Siloam, where 
Isaiah is traditionally supposed to have been sawn in two. 

* The scene of the battle of David and Goliath was very variously 
placed by tradition. The 'Bordeaux Pilgrim' connects it with 'Ain 
Jalud, near Jezreel, the present text with the Kedron, but Theodoricus 
knew the true site in the Valley of Elah (W. es Sunt) ; others placed 
it near Kolonia, west of Jerusalem. 

* The tombs on the east side of the Kedron are here called those of 
St. Peter, St. James, St. Simeon, Zechariah, and Jehosaphat. The 
* Bordeaux Pilgrim ' speaks of Hezekiah's and Isaiah's tombs. Theo- 



40 the; condition of the city of JERUSALEM 

is the sepulchre of King Jehosaphat, from whom the valley 
was so named, and above, towards the east, is Mount 
Olivet ; and know that on Mount Olivet Jesus Christ went 
up to heaven on the day of the Ascension, where the form 
of His right foot appears yet in a stone^ ; and He com- 
manded His disciples that they should go and preach the 
Gospel to all creatures ; and beneath is a crypt where St. 
Pelagia was martyred.^ On the slope, towards the south, 
is a chapel where Jesus Christ made the Pater Noster. 



III. 

OF PLACES NEAR JERUSALEM. 

Between Mount Olivet and Bethany is Befae (Bethphage), 
where our Lord commanded St. Peter and St. James and 

dosius of St. James, St, Zachariah, and St. Simeon as all buried in one 
tomb. Saewulf of St. Simeon, and St. Joseph. John of Wiirzburg 
places Isaiah's tomb at the tree (Quercus Rogel) beside Siloam. 
Fetellus (1151-7) speaks of the pyramid on the tomb of Jehosaphat. 
Benjamin of Tudela and Maundeville make St. James and Zacharias 
to have only one monument. It is not easy to reconcile all these 
descriptions. St. Joseph's tomb is now shown in the Church of the 
Tomb of the Virgin, opposite that of Queen Melisinda. The so-called 
tomb of St. James is that bearing the names of the Bene Hezir in a 
Hebrew inscription. Zachariah's tomb (as now shown) is that with 
a pyramid, which Fetellus seems to call Jehosaphat's. Arculphus 
speaks of the tower of Jehosaphat. Sir John Maundeville speaks of 
Absolom's Hand, apparently the same as the modern tomb of Absolom, 
which seems to be the tomb of Jehosaphat in the present text ; but 
the traditions as to these tombs, which belong to the Roman period, 
were shifting and uncertain. 

^ The footprint of Christ is still shown on Olivet. In the Byzan- 
tine age the prints of both feet were shown, but in the twelfth century 
apparently only one, as now. 

^ The cave of St. Pelagia is still shown, partly rock cut, partly 
vaulted in masonry, under the mosque of the Ascension. An early 
Christian or pagan funerary tablet in Greek was found here wnth the 
name.Domiiela. Several other mediaeval writers mention this cave. 



AND THE HOL Y PLACES A T THIS DA V. 41 

the other disciples to go and seek the she ass and her 
colt. 

At a league from Jerusalem [is Bethany ; there] is the 
house of Simon the Leper, where our Lord pardoned Mary 
Magdalene her sins; and there He raised Lazarus {Ic Ladrc) 
from his tomb.^ 

From Jerusalem to Quarantania is seven leagues. 
There our Lord fasted forty days : near which is Jericho. 
From Jericho to the river Jordan is seven leagues, and there 
was our Lord baptized by St. John Baptist [thence it is a 
day to Crac, and thence another to Mont Royal.]^ From 
the river Jordan to the Mount of Sinai is eight days. 
There our Lord gave the law t6 Moses, and there lies St. 
Catherine, virgin and martyr, in a very fair marble tomb, 
which tomb is so holy that a sort of oil from it heals many 
ills ; and the grace of God is shown in that many wild 
beasts who are on that mountain live on nothing save by 
licking the tomb of my lady St. Catherine, and by the 
manna which falls on the mountain. 

South of Jerusalem it is a league to St. Elias, near which 
is the Field of Flowers,^ and beside this road is the Sepulchre 
of Rachel the wife of Jacob. Over against this on the 

^ The house of Simon the Leper was often shown in Jerusalem ia 
the Church of the Madeleine, but it is here placed in Bethany. 

^ Crac is Kerak, built in 1142A.D. Montreal is Shobek, built in 
1 1 15. These important fortresses commanded the Hajj route from 
Damascus to Mecca. 

* St. Elias is the present Mar Elias. The field of flowers is con- 
nected with a favourite mediaeval legend of the flight into Egypt. 
Maundeville speaks of the field Floridus, where the faggots which were 
collected to burn an innocent maiden changed into roses. Sanuto 
calls it the field of the stone peas, where Christ changed the peas of a 
surly peasant into stones. The monks still show these stone peas 
near the road south of Mar Elias. (See Lievin's * Guide Book.') 
According to another legend (cf. Theodoricus), the peas betrayed the 
Holy Family to Herod ; but the juniper hid them, and the peas were 
changed into stone. 



42 THE CONDITION OF THE CITY OF JERUSALEM 

other side, on a hill, is Bethlehem, and the manger where 
our Lord was laid, when He was born and wrapped in 
little cloths. There is the place of the Nativity, and the 
place where the three kings [Caspar, Melcior, Baltisar], who 
came from the east, worshipped our Lord, when they 
offered gold, incense, and myrrh.^ There, on the right side 
of the choir, is the city where is the well where the star fell 
which led the three kings. On the left side lie the Inno- 
cents. Under the cloister is the sepulchre of St. Jerome.^ 
[At a league from Bethlehem, is a church where the angels 
announced to the shepherds the Nativity of our Lord ; 
there first was sung, Gloria in excelsis Deo^ A little 
above Bethlehem is a chapel, where our Lady rested, after 
her delivery.* From this chapel one takes the road which 
goes to St. Abraham in Hebron. There our Lord made 
Adam and Eve, and near this is the house of Cain and 
Abel.^ Hard by is where our Lord showed Himself in the 
form of the Trinity to St. Abraham, and St. Abraham saw 
three persons, and worshipped one. [There were buried 
the three patriarchs with their wives.] 

Towards the east (? west) is the place where our Lady 
saluted Elisabeth, and there St. John Baptist was born, 

* The star fell into a well, according to tradition ; but this well is 
now shown on the road from Jerusalem to Bethlehem north of Mar 
Elias, and called Well of the Magi, or Bir Kadismu. 

2 St. Jerome's study and the chapel of the Innocents are shown in the 
crypt in grottoes north of the grotto of the Nativity. 

* The Church of the Shepherds is the present Greek Church of Er 
R'awit, south-east of Bethlehem. 

^ The church where Our Lady rested is now called the Chapel of 
the Milk Grotto — a cave where the rock is supposed to have been 
whitened by the milk of the Virgin. Cakes mixed with powdered 
rock or dust from this grotto are still sold to pilgrims, and are 
supposed to give milk to mothers and even to cows, goats, etc. 

Perhaps Nebi Yukin, south-east of Hebron, said to be the tomb 
of Cain, but really the town Cain (Josh. xv. yj"). 



AND THE HOLY PLACES AT THIS DAY, 45 

and Zachariah his father.^ Two leagues thence is a castle, 
which they call Emmaus ; there our Lord appeared to St. 
Luke, and to Cleophas after His rising (surectioii). 

Near Jerusalem to the west, it is a league to St. Cross; 
there grew the tree of which the Holy Cross was made. 
From Jerusalem to Samaria, which is called Naples, is 
twelve leagues ; ^ there our Lord spoke to the Samaritan 
woman at Jacob's well. Thence it is two leagues to 
Sebaste, where St. John was beheaded [there are the 
ashes of his body] ; whence to Mount Tabor is ten leagues. 

IV. 

OF PILGRIMAGES FROM ACRE. 

Now we have spoken of the Holy Land of Jerusalem, 
and of the country round, and we come to Acre. There 
are pilgrimages which one must seek as directed. He 
who would rightly seek them, should go straight from Acre 
to Nazareth, which is seven leagues; on the road is Safran,^ 
whence to Acre it is three leagues, on which mountain is 
the Church of St. James and St. John, where they were 
born, and the spot is still shown, and from this place Safran 
to Sepphoris is three leagues, and thence a league to 
Nazareth. 

There our Lord came to [eii) the Virgin Mary, and there 

^ 'Ain Karim, which is the present site of the birthplace of St. John 
Baptist. 

2 There is here an error in confusing Samaria with Shechem, which 
appears to have been common in the twelfth century. The text does 
not suggest that Sebaste was the true site of Samaria, Naples or 
Neapolis being Shechem. In the fourth century the true site of 
Samaria at Sebaste was known. 

^ Saphran, or Safran, is Shefa 'Amr. The remains of a Crusading 
Church are still traceable. The road to Nazareth was protected by 
the fortresses of Shefa 'Amr and Seffurieh, as were the other pilgrim 
routes through the country by castles, at a day's journey apart. 



44 THE CONDITION OF THE CITY OF JERUSALEM 

is the place where the Angel announced Him, to wit, in a 
hollow rock, which is in the church on the left hand, and at 
that place is built a chapel in honour of our Lady. [There 
is the place where she dwelt : there is the fountain of which 
she carried the water, wherewith she nourished our Lord '} 
at the brook of this fountain, our Lady washed the cloths 
wherewith she swaddled our Lord. Our Lady sent our 
Lord to fetch from this fountain when He was somewhat 
grown, and He went there willingly, and fetched thence in 
pots, or in bottles or in other vessels, and this was after 
they had come back from the land of Egypt.] Near which a 
bowshot off is the fountain of St. Cbriel. From Nazareth 
to the Leap of our Lord is a league f and on this roadside 
is a chapel of Saint Zacharias, which is of the Armenians, 
and it is a fair place. 

From Nazareth to Cana of Galilee is three leagues. At 
Cana of Galilee the wedding of Architriclinus took place, 
and at this wedding God made the water wine ; the place 
is still shown where the wedding was. From Cana of 
Galilee it is quite a bowshot to the well whence the water 
was brought to the wedding of Architriclinus.^ 

^ The chapel at Nazareth, on the supposed site of the Holy House, 
is now within the new church of the Latin monastery. The Virgin's 
fountain is still shown. The writer does not mention the sites in the 
Greek Church, which is over the true spring-head, following his 
determination mentioned in the last section of the first part not to 
allude to the churches of the Eastern Christian sects. 

The Leap of our Lord (Saltus Domini) is mentioned by other 
mediaeval writers. It is the present Mountain of the Precipitation, a 
cliff south of Nazareth traditionally connected with the Gospel episode 
in Luke iv. 29, 30. 

* The site shown as Cana of Galilee in the twelfth century appears 
to have been at Khurbet Kanah, north of the Buttauf Plain. (See the 
authorities quoted in 'Tent Work in Palestine,' vol. i., p. 151.) The 
site at Kefr Kenna now shown does not agree with the descriptions of 
Saswulf, Fetellus, Sanuto, or Poloner, There is a vault or cave at 
Khurbet Kanah which seems to be that mentioned in the present text. 



AND THE HOL V PLACES AT THIS DA Y. 45 

P>om Nazareth to Mount Tabor is three leagues, on 
which mountain our Lord transfigured Himself before the 
disciples, a'-id there is a church of black Latin monks. 
From Mount Tabor to Mount Hermon^ is a league, where 
is the city Nain ; there our Lord raised up a child before 
the gate of the city. From near this, towards the east, it 
is three leagues to the Sea of Galilee. 

[The Sea of Galilee is no other than a lake of sweet 
water of the river Jordan, and of other waters and 
fountains which are there gathered. On this Sea of 
Galilee our Lord ate with His Apostles after He was raised. 
He ate the backs of the fishes, so that the bones which were 
on the backs remained all bare, and all the rest of the 
fishes remained all whole, and then He threw them back 
into the water, and the fishes at once moved and went 
swimming with the other fishes without any backs save the 
bones which were quite bare. These fishes are as large or 
more than are the roaches which we keep in the sweet 
waters of France.]^ Beside the Sea is the city of Tiberias, 
where our Lord wrought many miracles. There our Lord 
made Monseigneurs St. Peter and St. Andrew, who were in 
a. boat, throw their nets into the sea ; and on this Sea our 
Lord went on foot to St. Peter and St. Andrew, who were 
in the boat, when St. Peter was afraid, for he thought that 
it was a phantom. 

Near which is Capernaum and, on the other side, the 
marsh (estanc) of Genezareth. To the right hand is a 

St. Architriclinus took his name from the Greek word arkitriklinos. 
or ' governor of the feast ' (John ii. 8). 

^ Hermon here is not the true Hermon, but Jebel ed Dahy, or ' Little 
Hermon,' on the northern slope of which is Nain. 

^ The mediaeval legends of the fishes of the sea of Galilee are 
numerous. The fish intended in the present case seems to be the 
Chromis Nilotica — a kind of bream, which has a large dorsal fin like 
that of a perch. 



46 THE CONDITION OF THE CITY OF JERUSALEM 

mountain which is covered with grass, where our Lord 
preached to the crowd of people, and near this is the place 
where our Lord fed five thousand men with five loaves and 
two fishes.^ Below, near this, is the prison where our Lord 
was placed until He had paid the tax for His passing, and 
it was there that God commanded St. Peter to fish a fish, 
and when he had taken it, our Lord commanded that it 
should be opened, and in it was a silver penny, wherewith 
our Lord paid His tax.^ 

From Tiberias to Saphet is three leagues, and on the 
road is the well where Joseph was thrown when he was 
sold to the Ishmaelites.^ At Saphet is the Cave of Tobit, 
where he buried the dead :* and on the Bridge of Saphet 
the stone where our Lady rested. 

^ The Marsh of Gennesaret is perhaps an error for Plain of Gen- 
nesaret. Capernaum is probably placed at Tell Hum, as in other 
writings of the age. The site of the miracle of feeding the multitude 
was in the twelfth century placed on the rocky mountain north of the 
Sea of Galilee, where the M'aseret 'Aisa, or ' winepress of Jesus,' is 
now found. This hill was called Mensa Christi, ' Christ's Table.* 
(See 'Tent Work in Palestine,' vol. ii., p. 187.) A more modem 
tradition places the site at the Hajiret en Nasira, or * Stones of the 
Christians ' — a ruined cromlech on the plateau above Tiberias to the 
west, near the so-called Mountain of the Beatitudes (Kurn Hattin). 
The traditions both fail to agree with the Gospel narrative. 

* This prison below the Mensa Chi isii was perhaps at the Church 
of St. Peter mentioned by other writers, which seems to have stood 
where is the present ruined shrine of Sheikh Seiyad ('the fisherman') 
close to 'Ain Minieh. The fish of St. Peter is traditionally the same 
known to the Romans as faber^ having two black spots on the sides 
(Matt. xvii. 24). 

* The Well of Joseph is the site now called Khan Jubb Yusef. In 
the Middle Ages the true site of Dothan, where Joseph was placed in 
the pit, was unknown, though known in the fourth century as being 
Tell Dothan. Belhulia, which was near Dothan, was in the twelfth 
century placed at Safed. 

* Marino Sanuto mentions Neptalim Tobia next to Saphet. Tobit 
was of the tribe of Naphtali (Tobit i. i), and came from Thisbi, near 
Naphtali in Galilee, above Aser (verse 2). Sanuto places Aser at 



AND THE HOL Y PLACES A T THIS DA Y. 47 

From Saphet to St. George^ is five leagues ; there is a 
church of Black Monks. From St. George to Acre is four 
leagues. At Tiberias is the torch (Jison) which the Jews 
threw at our Lord when He showed them how they should 
dye, and the brand stuck to the wall ; and there now grows 
a great tree.^ 

V. 

OF OTHER PILGRIMAGES TO DISTANT PLACES. 

[All these pilgrimages which we have noticed are to the 
Holy City of Jerusalem and to the Holy Land of Promise. 
Now we will tell you of other pilgrimages which are to far- 
off places. 

Near the city of Damascus is a mountain, and on this 
mountain a church of our Lady of the Rock, as they call 
it. In this church are twelve nuns and eight monks. This 
place is called Sardaines, and some folk call it our Lady of 
Sardenai. In this church is a tablet of wood {de fust). 
It is an ell long and half an ell wide. On this tablet was 
painted the image of our Lady St. Mary, and it was 
engraved on the wood {fust). And from this image comes 
forth the sweetest oil smellingof balm, and many folks have 

KaPat esh Shakif (Belfort). The identification of Safed as the city of 
Tobit arises from the additional words in the Vulgate of Tobit i. i, 
which are not in the Greek, * in sinistro habens civitatim Sephet.^ 
The Crusading castle of Safed was built before 1151 A.D., and 
belonged to the Templars. 

^ St. George is shown on Sanuto's map where the present shrine of 
El Khudr exists above the village of Mejd el Kerum. Sanuto says 
that St. George was supposed to have been born here, and that the 
place lay in a fat valley extending towards the Sea of Galilee. This 
agrees with the position of Mejd el Kerum in the valley west of the 
Sahel Rimeh. 

* This refers to the story in the apocryphal Gospel of Christ as a 
dyer producing every colour at will. (* Arabic Gospel of the Infancy,' 
chap, xxxvii., dating from the eighth or perhaps sixth century a.d.) 



48 THE CONDITION OF THE CITY OF JERUSALEM 

been anointed therewith and had no more trouble of their 
sickness, and this oil never failed, however much was taken. 
To this church came the Saracens from the country round 
at the feast of our Lady, in August and in September : there 
they prayed, worshipped, and made offerings. This image 
was made in Constantinople, and a Patriarch of Jerusalem 
took it thence, and an abbess asked for it and had it, and 
carried it there where I have told you.^ 

In Tortosa is the first church which was built in honour 
of the Mother of God, and our Lady ; and St Peter the 
Apostle began it first.^ 

At the city of Baruth was an image of Jesus Christ 
which was made a little after He had ascended to heaven. 
This image the Jews crucified in mockery of our Lord, and 
the Jews pierced its side with a lance, and from this side 
came forth water and blood, and by such miracle many 

^ Notre Dame de la Roche at Sardenai was a very celebrated place 
of pilgrimage in the Middle Ages. The picture here mentioned is 
still shown in the Monastery of Saidnaya. Thetmar itells the story in 
full of its being brought by a monk of Constantinople from Jerusalem 
(not from Constantinople, as here stated) to a holy widow living at 
Sardanai. The oil flowed from its breasts, and is often enumerated 
among the treasures of churches in France in their inventories. 
Saidnaya is a large Christian village ten miles north of Damascus. 
The Greek nunnery stands on a cliff. The picture was adored by 
Saracens as well as Christians, and by special treaty the Templars used 
to visit the shrine in order to carry home some of the miraculous oil, 

2 Tortosa, or Antaradus, was another place of pilgrimage, now 
TartCis, opposite the \s\2sidiFrRudd. Joynville made a pilgrimage to 
the shrine of Our Lady at this place from Sajette (Sidon) in 1253 A.D. 
It was the last place held by Christians in Syria, being defended by 
the Templars till 1291 A.D. The cathedral still remains almost 
perfect, being now a mosque. Jaques de Vitry says it was built by 
St. Peter. It contained a picture on wood of the Virgin, supposed to 
have been painted by St. Luke. The church was not, however, the 
oldest built in honour of the Theotokos, ior in 431 A.D. the only Church 
of the Virgin was at Ephesus, and the Virgin's tomb had apparently a 
chapel as early as 390 A.D. at Jerusalem. 



AND THE HOLY PLACES AT THIS DAY, 49 

believed on our Lord. With this water and this blood they 
used to anoint the sick and healed their sicknesses. 

In the city of New Babylon which is in Egypt and at 
Caheira (Babylon is the city and Caheira is the castle), in 
this Babylon is a fountain, and at this fountain our Lady 
used to wash the clothes of her dear Son, when they were 
in Egypt because of Herod. This fountain the Saracens 
greatly honour, and very willingly come there to wash. By 
this fountain was watered the tree which bore the true 
balm.i 

At the Castle of Caheira there is to this day a palm- 
tree which bore dates. Our Lady St. Mary was one day 
under this palm and longed to have of its dates, but the 
tree was so high that she could not have them. The tree 
bowed to her feet, and the glorious dame took of this fruit 
and then the tree raised itself, many Saracens and pagans 
who were there seeing it. Then the pagans cut down this 
tree, and on the morrow found it all upright and all whole, 
nor did any cut or opening appear. Then from that time 
forth they did great honour to that tree.^] 

* Babylon was the mediaeval name of a ruin close to Cairo. (See 
'Antoninus,' xliii., p. 34.) The spring of the Virgin is not now shown 
in Cairo ; but at Matarieh, near Heliopolis, a fountain and tree exist 
connected with the history of the Flight into Egypt. It is probably 
to this site that the text somewhat loosely refers. 

^ This celebrated legend of the bowing palm occurs in the apocryphal 
Gospel called the ' Pseudo Matthew,' a work of the fifth century 
(chap. XX.). It is also preserved in the Koran (S. xix 16-31;), ^^^ 
closely resembles the Buddhist legend of Maya and the Palasa tree. 
See also Epist. Barnabas, ch. xii., in second century A.D. 



ERNOUL'S ACCOUNT OF 
PALESTINE. 

Now you have heard of Saladin, who is at the siege of 
Crac,^ and so we will speak of the river Jordan — as to 
where it rises, and how it goes, and where it rests. 

This river divides the land of the Saracens and of the 
Christians, just as it runs. The land of the Christians is 
on this side, and its name is Land of Promise, and that of 
the Saracens is named Arabia. In the Land of Promise 
they call all the waters rivers {fluns). At the foot of the 
mountain rise two fountains ; the one is called Jor and the 
other Dain.2 Now I will tell you of this mountain, what it 
is called. Its name is the Mount of Ninban (other MSS. 
Liban).^ This mountain reaches four days in length to a 
castle which is beyond Tripoli, which they call Arces. 
There was made the ark of Noah,^ whence he took to 
the sea by this mount Ninban, and for this the castle is 
called Arches i for the ark of Noah was made there. This 

* Crac is Kerak, where Saladin besieged Renaud of Chatillon. 

^ The derivation of Jordan from Jor and Dan is originally a Rab- 
binical idea. Perhaps the name of the Leddan, one of the sources of 
Jordan, is connected with it ; but the accepted derivation of Jordan is 
from a Hebrew root meaning ' flowing down.' 

^ Ernoul considers Hermon, on the slopes of which the Jordan 
rises, to be a part of Lebanon. 

* This place is the ancient Arka, connected with the Arkites (Cien. 
X. 17) and with one of the titles of Ashtoreth. It has, of course, 
nothing to do with the ark. 



ERNOULS ACCOUNT OF PALESTINE. 51 

mountain parts the Paynims and Christendom, from oppo- 
site Tyre to beyond Tripoh along the coast. On this side 
is Christendom and on the other side the Paynims. 

In this mountain are many good lands and good towns, 
which the Christians and the Saracens divide half and half. 
In such a place all are Saracens and in such another place 
they are all Christians. Between these two mountains^ is 
a valley, which they call the Vale of Bacar, where the men 
of Alexander went on a foray when he besieged Tyre. 
But he who made the Romaunt thereof, the better to make 
rhyme, called it the Vale of Josaphas to get the rhyme. 

Now we have told you of the Mount of Niban, whence 
the fountains spring at its foot. Now we will tell you of a 
city below the slope of the mountain above the fountains, 
which is called Belinas. It was already Christian in the 
time of Godfrey of Bouillon, but I cannot tell you in the 
time of which king it was lost by them.^ But afterwards 
they fortified two castles near to it : the one is called 
Toron.^ This was the king's Castle, and is five leagues 
from Tyre and four leagues from the city of Belinas ; and 
the other is called Saphet. This was of the Temple and 
four leagues from the city.* 

^ Ernoul here suddenly refers to the Anti-Lebanon. The valley is 
the Bukeiah (Coele-Syria), which was not then occupied by the Franks, 
who had, however, previously held Emesa (La Chamelle). Anti- 
Lebanon, Damascus, and Aleppo were never conquered by the Cru- 
saders. 

2 Belinas is Bani^s, which was held by the Crusaders from 11 30 to 
1 165 A.D. The large castle (above the town, which was also walled 
round) remains in ruins. 

^ Toron is Tibnin, built in 1107. It is fourteen miles from Tyre, 
and seventeen miles from Banias. 

* Safed is twenty-three miles from Banids. It is here said to have 
belonged to the Templars. In 1250, however (after our author wrote), 
it was given to the Teutonic order by treaty with 'Imdd ed Din, sultan 
of Damascus (Makrizi). 

4—2 



52 ERNOUUS ACCOUNT OF PALESTINE 

Now we will tell you of Belinas, what town it was and what 
name it had of old. It was Philipon, and was called Caesarea 
Philippi. This Philip was brother of Herod who had St. 
John the Baptist beheaded, and was husband of the woman 
whom Herod had when he had St. John beheaded, and 
this because he said to Herod that he should not have his 
brother's wife, therefore he beheaded him. At this Caesarea 
our Lord gave to St. Peter the keys of Paradise, so that he 
might open and shut. This city is nigh to Galilee. 

Now we will tell you of those two fountains which run 
towards the Sea of Galilee. Before they enter the sea they 
join and become one. One of the two fountains is called 
Jor and the other is called Dain, and where they join they 
are called Jordan. This water enters the sea near Belinas^ 
and runs through the midst of the sea, beside which is 
a bridge which is called the Bridge of Tiberias, and when 
it passes this bridge it is called the River Jordan.^ 

Now we will tell you of this sea, what sea it is. This 
sea is not salt, but is sweet and good to drink. This sea 
has but four leagues in length and two in breadth. This 
sea the Scripture calls the Sea of Galilee, and in another 
place the Sea of Tiberias, because the city of Tiberias 
lies by the sea on the side of the Christians. In another 
place the Scripture calls it the Lake of Nazareth.^ 

It was on this sea that Jesus Christ made the water wine, 
when he was at the wedding of Archedeclin, in the city of 
Tiberias.^ Between Tiberias and Belinas is a place which 

1 The bridge is apparently J^sr Benat Yakub. The sea (or lake) 
near Banias would be the Huleh, half a mile above the bridge. 

- The Sea of Galilee is eight miles long north and south, by two 
and a half miles east and west. * Lake of Nazareth ' is an error for 
Gennesareth. An account of the call of the Apostles, and of Peter 
walking on the sea, which here follows, is omitted. 

^Archedeclin, i.e., 'the governor of the feast.' See p. 45. The 
scene of the wedding at Cana of Galilee (John ii.) is thus transferred 
to the Sea of Galilee. 



ERNOUVS ACCOUNT OF PALESTINE 53 

they call the Table,^ near to the Sea of Galilee. It was in 
this place that Jesus Christ fed the Apostles and five 
thousand men with five barley loaves and two fishes, so 
that two baskets of fragments were left. 

In another part on the sea, towards the Paynims, is a 
city which is called Capharnaon. There were St. Peter 
and St. Andrew born, and there too Jesus Christ did fair 
miracles, healing folk such as the king's son and others. 

Hard by is a city which they call Nain ; there, too, Jesus 
Christ went one day, He and His Apostles. And when He 
came near to the city He met an esquire whom they bore 
forth to bury. Then came Jesus Christ to him, and said 
that he should arise, and forthwith he leapt up, for Jesus 
Christ had raised him.^ Five leagues from this Sea of 
Tiberias is a city called Nazareth, and it is six leagues from 
Acre. At this city Our Lady St. Mary was born, and in 
this same city the angel brought her the message that 
Jesus Christ should take flesh and blood of her. When 
Our Lady St. Mary was with child with the Son of God the 
Father, she went to a mountain which is near Nazareth with 
her cousin-german, who dwelt there, and whose name was 
Elizabeth, and who was with child with Monseigneur St. 
John the Baptist.^ In that place is an abbey of the Greeks, 
which they call St. Zachary, for Zacharias dwelt there, and 
he was the father of St. John the Baptist. 

Near Nazareth, about half a league, is a fair mountain, 
which is called in Latin Monteni excelsum valde^ and in 
Romance language le Saiiti^Xh.^ Leap'), because on the 
side of this mountain is a cliff whither they led those of 

1 Mensa Christ!. See Part II., p. 46. 
'- An account of the devils entering the swine (Luke viii. 26) follows. 

' The scene of the Salutation is transferred to Galilee. It is usually 
placed in Judea (see Luke i. 39). A few words from Luke i. 39-46 
are here omitted. 



54 ERNOUVS ACCOUNT OF PALESTINE. 

Nazareth who had deserved death, to make them leap 
down. Now, it happened once, that Jesus Christ was led 
thither to be made leap down, because of a word He 
had spoken to the Jews in Nazareth ; and when He got 
there He vanished from them and sat on a stone which 
is yet there, so that they could not either see or find Him. 

This mountain, which is over the cliff, is the mountain 
to which the Devil carried Jesus Christ, when he had 
brought Him from the Ouarantania where He fasted, to 
the Temple. From the Temple he carried Him onto 
this mountain, and showed Him all the land, and all the 
country, and the riches which were in the earth, and 
said to Him that he would give Him all that He saw if 
He would worship him; and Jesus Christ said he should 
depart and tempt Him no more. The Devil departed, 
and the angels came to this mountain.^ 

Beneath this mount is another mount, which is not as 
high as that of which I have spoken above. There is 
a very fair plain between the two. This other mount is 
called Mount Tabor. To this mount Our Lord once 
brought St. Peter, and St. James, and St. John, and was 
transfigured before them, whence in many lands they 
keep the Feast of the Transfiguration. I have forgot to 
tell you when I spoke thereof how far it is from Jerusalem 
to that mountain to which the Devil bore Jesus Christ. It 
is two long days' journey.- 

1 The Saltus Domini is still shown (see p. 44). Ernoul makes it 
also the ' exceeding high mountain' (Matt. iv. 8), which others placed 
in the Jordan Valley near Jericho. According to some legends, the 
cliff opened to hide our Lord from the Jews. A stone on which it is 
said our Lord sat is still shown by the Moslems on the side of Jebel 
Neby Dahy, south of the site in question. It is called Hajr Sidna 
Aisa, ' Stone of our Lord Jesus.' 

^ The occurrence of the Transfiguration on Tabor is first mentioned 
in the Gospel of the Hebrews (now lost). From Jerusalem to the 



ERNOULS ACCOUNT OF PALESTINE. 



55 



Now I will tell you of the River Jordan, how it runs, 
and where it rests. When it comes out of the Sea of 
Galilee it runs towards the south, and runs full three days' 
journey in length, and it rests in the sea which they call 
the Sea of the Devil. In the world and in the Scripture 
it is called the Sea of Salt, because it has a mountain 
of salt on the shore towards Crac, and because it is so 
salt, and so bitter, that nothing can be compared to its 
saltness and its bitterness : that of the Great Sea is 
as nothing to it ; and it runs not, but is like a lake, and it 
has no fishes, for fishes may not stay there ; and it was 
once all land there where the sea is ; and this land lies 
between a city called St. Abraham and Crac.^ 

That I may tell you further of this sea, I will tell you 
where Crac lies. It lies in Arabia. Near it is Mount 
Sinai, in the land of the Lord of Crac.^ This Mount 
Sinai is between the Red Sea and Crac* There God gave 
the Law to Moses after they had crossed the Red Sea. 
To this mountain, where the Law was given, the angels bore 
the body of St. Katherine, when her head was cut off 
in Egypt. There she lies in the oil which comes from her 
body, and thereon is an abbey of Greek monks ; but the 
chief abbey of that house is not there, but at the foot 
of the mountain. There is the abbey and the convent, 
and no one can go up the mount on a horse, or carry meat 
whereby those above might live. 

But there above are thirteen monks, who live a hard life. 



Saltus Domini is sixty-two miles. An account of ihe Transfiguration 
here occurs in the text. 

^ St. Abraham was the Crusading name of Hebron. The Salt 
Mountain is south-west of the Dead Sea, not near Kerak. The Dead 
Sea is about four times as salt as the Mediterranean, and Ernoul is 
right in saying that fish cannot live in it. 

^ The Lordship of Kerak included the Sinaitic peninsula. 



56 ERNOUVS ACCOUNT OF PALESTINE. 

They bring them up thither bread and naught else, and 
some of them eat but three times a week, bread with water, 
and some there are who eat raw herbs with their bread 
which they get there. On this mount Moses fasted forty 
days, nor ate until the Law was given. 

Now we will tell you of the Red Sea, which is near. 
This is the sea which Moses struck with his rod, and the 
sea parted and became as a hedge on the one side and 
on the other. This is the sea which the children of Israel 
crossed dryshod when they came from Egypt, and when 
they had crossed King Pharaoh, who came after them, went 
in and would have slain and taken them, he and all his 
host. Moses waved his rod and struck the sea, and 
the sea closed, and Pharaoh^ and all his host were 
drowned, not one of them escaped ; and the children of 
Israel escaped, for they were over before it was closed. 

On the shore of this sea Prince Renaud once had made 
five galleys. When they had made them he had them 
launched in the sea, and put in them knights and soldiers, 
and food enough, in order to go round and to know what 
kind of folk dwelt on that sea in other parts. They de- 
parted when they were ready, and passed into the deep 
sea nor from that time when they left did any man hear 
what became of them.^ And through the midst of this Red 
Sea runs a river of Paradise ; and when it has left the sea 
it runs through the midst of the land of Egypt. This river 
is called in Scripture Sison (Pison),^ and in the world it 
is called Nile. 

■^ Exod. xiv. 27 does not mention Pharaoh himself as being drowned. 

- This was in 1 182-3 A.D. The ships were built at Akabah, and 
went as far as Aden. Saladin launched a fleet at Kolzum, and burnt 
this fleet at Haura. Renaud's troops were within a day of Medina, 
and retreated by land, With great loss, to Montreal (Shobek) and Kerak. 

^ Josephus (' Ant.' i. 1-3) identifies the Pison with the Ganges and 
the Nile with Gihon. 



ERNOUUS ACCOUNT OF PALESTINE. 57 

Now we have read of this Nile, so we will tell you of the 
City of St. Abraham, which is beyond the Sea of the Devil, 
of which I spoke before, in the Land of Promise. This place 
is the city which is by name Hebron. There St. Abraham 
conversed and dwelt when he came from Hamam (Harran), 
where he was born, which Scripture calls Aram,i when God 
told him that he should go forth and should go to dwell in a 
land whereof He would tell him. In this place he bought a 
field of earth to bury himself and his people, and there was 
he buried, and his son Isaac, and Jacob, the son of Isaac, who 
had died in Egypt, and who was the father of Joseph. 
When his fathers had died in Egypt he had them brought 
and buried with his brothers in Hebron, and when Joseph 
was dead, the sons of Israel, when they came from the land 
of Egypt to the Land of Promise, brought his bones and 
buried them with their fathers f and when Abraham dwelt 
there, there was no town, but afterwards they made that 
city there and called it St. Abraham, because Abraham had 
dwelt there. This city belonged to the Lord of Crac. It is 
five leagues from Bethlehem,^ where Jesus Christ was born. 

Bethlehem is a city, but not great, for there is but one 
street,^ and from Bethlehem it is two leagues to Jerusalem.^ 

Between Bethlehem and Jerusalem is a monastery where 
are Greek monks, which is called Gloria in excelsis Deo^ 
It was there that the angels sang when Jesus Christ was 
born, and they spoke to the shepherds, and announced that 
the Saviour of the World was born, and said that they 

* Harran (misspelt Hamam) has no connection with Aram, and 
Abraham was not born there, but came there from Ur. 

^ Josephus also places Joseph's tomb at Hebron, but the Bible at 
Shechem (Josh. x\iv. 32). 
^ Actual distance, fourteen English miles. 

* Bethlehem has still only one main street along the ridge. 

* Actual distance, five English miles. 

^^ The Shepherd's Chapel seems here confused with Mar Elias. 



58 ERNOUnS ACCOUNT OF PALESTINE. 

should go to Jerusalem/ where He was, and they would 
find Him swaddled in clothes, and they went and found 
all as the angels had told them. We give thanks and 
praise to Jesus Christ for that He willed it so. Near this 
monastery is a field of ground called the * Field of 
Flowers.'^ 

Now you have read of this, so we will tell you of a city 
which is two leagues from the river, and which the people 
of the land fortified when they heard say that the children 
of Israel were coming into the Land of Promise, and that 
they must pass thereby. This city is called Jericop, and 
was walled with adamant stone. When the children of 
Israel had crossed the river they besieged it, because it 
was at the entry to the Land of Promise.^ 

Near this city is a field {gastifie),^ which is full of 
serpents. There they catch the serpents of which the oint- 
ment is made, and I will tell you how they catch them. 
The man who catches them makes a ring round the field, 
and goes saying his charm, singing round the ring. All the 
serpents who have heard him come to him, and he catches 
them as easily as he would a lamb, and takes them to sell 
in the cities to those who make the ointment. Now the're 
are some wise ones amongst these serpents, who, when they 
hear him begin his song, stop one of their ears against the 
ground, and stop the other with the tail, so that they may 
not hear, and thus they escape. By that ointment which 
they make of these serpents all kind of poison is cured.^ 

^ This is another instance of the author's carelessness — Jerusalem 
standing for Bethlehem, as he has just said. 
^ A paraphrase of Gen. xviii. follows. (See p. 42.) 

* A paraphrase of Josh. vi. follows. 

* Gastine, answering to the c arucate of Domesday book, a division 
of the casale or property, amounting to about eighty acres. 

5 This is an early account of the snake-charming commonly per- 
formed by Dervishes in the East. 



ERNOUVS ACCOUNT OF PALESTINE. 59 



Now I will tell you more about two serpents which are 
found in Arabia, and which are far in the desert. There 
are but two, nor can there be more of them, and they 
are of so hot and stinking a nature that no bird may 
fly over where they meet, but will fall dead of the heat, 
and of the stink of them. Nor is there man or beast that 
smells their stink that does not fall dead. Now I will tell 
you how they are born, and how they are brought forth — 
for it is their death. When the time comes that they are 
kindled, the male comes and puts his head in the mouth 
of the female, and she conceives ; and when she conceives 
she shuts her teeth and bites off the head of the male, 
and so he dies ; and when her time comes she brings 
forth, and of the brood come forth one male and the 
other female. And so it is each time.^ 

There,- on the road, Jesus Christ gave sight to the man 
who cried after Him; for he had no eyes. Thence, just 
a league from Jericop, is the Quarantania, where God 
fasted on a high mountain. 

At the foot of the mountain is a spring, good and fair, 
which in the time of the Prophet Elisha was of a mar- 
vellous nature, so that under heaven there was no place 
which that water touched but that nothing green would 
grow there. There was no woman in the world if she 
drank it, but would never have a child ; nor she-beast 
either, but had no offspring. Then came Elisha and healed 
it, putting salt into it ; and never after Elisha had healed 
it did it do harm, but great good, and watered all that land 
and the gardens as far as the river.^ This Quarantania 

^ This marvellous tale of serpents is found in Herodotus iii. 109. 
In Talmudic accounts also the ' deaf adder ' stops her ears with her 
tail, just as here stated. 

■^ A paraphrase of Luke xix. i-io here follows. 

' 'Ain es Sultin, or * Elisha's fountain,' still waters the gardens. 



6o ERNOUVS ACCOUNT OF PALESTINE 

where God fasted is in the desert this side of the river,^ 
and the desert where St. John abode is beyond the river ; 
and near the river he baptized those who came to him to 
be baptized, and so he baptized Jesus Christ ; and on the 
brink of the river where he baptized there is an abbey of 
Greek monks, which is called St. John.^ 

Between Jericop and Jerusalem is a place which they call 
Rouge Cisterne. There used to be an inn where those 
lodged who went from Jerusalem to Jericop, and to the 
river, and it was thither that the Samaritan bore the man 
whom he found robbed by the way, of whom Jesus Christ 
spoke when they asked, ' Who is my neighbour ?'* 

Now, I have spoken to you of the Sea of Galilee, and 
of the river, and of this side and that side, and of the line 
between the Christians and the Saracens, for I told you 
that the Saracens had crossed the river when they had been 
a day at Forbelet, and had gone to besiege Crac 

When Baldwin, the King of Jerusalem, heard say that 
Saladin was sending for all his men to come into the land, 
the King assembled all his host, and gathered them in 
a place which is called the Fountains of Sepphoris, and 
for this reason they are called the Fountains of Sepphoris, 
because they are near the town called Sepphoris, and in 
this town was born St. Anne, the mother of Our Lady St. 
Mary. At these fountains the King dwelt in the summer, 
when there was no truce with the Saracens, both he and his 
Knights and the Templars and Hospitallers, and all the 
Barons of the land. And for this reason they stayed there, 
because if the Saracens came into the land they were ready 

■^ Jebel Koruntul. 

^ St. John on Jordan, founded by Justinian, now called Deir el 
Yehud. 

3 A paraphrase of the parable of the Good Samaritan (Luke x. 25) 
follows. The site is Talat ed Dumm, where are remains of a castL- 
on the hill and of a khan by the road. 



ERNOUL'S ACCOUNT OF PALESTINE 6l 

prepared to go to meet them.^ This place where these 
fountains were is a league from Nazareth, and five leagues 
from Tiberias, and five leagues from Acre.^ There dwelt 
the King of Jerusalem three months, he and all his host, 
until Saladin came into the land, and until he had gathered 
his forces. 

When Saladin had gathered his host, and collected them 
at Damascus, he came and got so far on his way that 
he crossed the river and lodged at a fountain which is 
called the Fountain of Tubania,^ which is at the foot of 
a mountain under a rock ; this mountain is four leagues 
from the fountains of Sepphoris, where the King of 
Jerusalem was with his host, and two leagues from a 
castle called Gerin. This castle is in a place which is 
called Dothan ; in this place is the cistern into which the 
sons of Israel threw their brother Joseph, and sold him to 
merchants who took him to Egypt. . . . 

Now we will tell you of Naples (Neapolis), how it 
lies, and where it lies, which in the time when Jesus Christ 
was upon earth was not yet Naples, and here first dwelt 
the Samaritans. Naples lies between two mountains, and 
those of the country call one of the mountains Mount Cain, 
and the other Mount Abel. Mount Abel is always green 
both winter and summer, through the great number of olive 

^ Banids having been taken, the route from Damascus to Tiberias 
was open to Saladin, and Seffurieh possessed the nearest convenient 
water supply to that city at the springs (Kastal Seffurieh) south of 
the town. 

^ True distances : from Kastal Sufifurieh to Nazareth, three English 
miles ; to Tiberias, sixteen miles ; to Acre, seventeen miles. 

^ There is a confusion here. Tubania ('Ain Tabaun), where a Cru- 
sading battle occurred, is three miles from Gerin (Zerain or Jezreel), 
and distant fourteen miles from Sepphoris. But Joseph's well was, in 
the twelfth century, shown at Khan Minieh, north of Tiberias, by which 
route Saladin really advanced. Our author writes probably second- 
hand, and misread Tubania for Tiberias, confusing two distinct battles. 



62 ERNOULS ACCOUNT OF PALESTINE 



trees growing thereon ; and Mount Cain is always dry, being 
all stones and pebbles.^ At the foot of Mount Cain is 
a city called Cicar.^ This city is towards sunrise. By the 
top of Mount Abel, towards sunrise, is a mountain which is 
called the Mountain of St. Abraham. On the mountain is 
a place which they call Bethel.' This is the place where 
Abraham brought his son Isaac to sacrifice him, when God 
commanded him, and there the angel had prepared for him 
a lamb to sacrifice instead of his son. 

Beside this mountain, towards sunrise, is a city which, 
when Jesus Christ was on earth, was called Samaria.* 

Beneath this city was a plain^ which was called Shechem. 
There was a well which Jacob made, and gave it to Joseph 
his son, where the people of the city went for water.^ This 
well is half a league from Naples.'' 

This city of Samaria was quite destroyed after the time 
of Jesus Christ, when Vespasian was on earth. Nor is there 
any longer a town, but a monastery of the Samaritans^ 
where they sacrifice their Passover. Nor can they sacrifice 

^ This part is curiously incorrect, apparently copied out of some 
older account not well understood. If Mount Abel is Mount Ebal, 
Mount Cain should be Gerizim ; yet Bethel is placed on Mount Abel, 
and Gerizim is well watered, while Ebal is dry. 

"^ Cicar (Sychar), now 'Askar, is at the foot of Ebal, towards the 
east. 

^ This Bethel is the Samaritan site of Bethel on Gerizim (compare 
the * Bordeaux Pilgrim*). 

'* By Samaria — as in other works of this age — Shechem is meant. 
Apparently Sebaste was not then considered to be Samaria, though 
known as such in the fourth century. The Samaritan woman was sup- 
posed to come from the city Samaria. Hence it was argued that 
Neapolis (Nablus) was Samaria. 

^ The plain (el Mukhnah) is actually higher than Niblus. 

* By the city he means the supposed Samaria = Shechem. A para- 
phrase of John iv. 5-38 follows. 

^ From Jacob's Well to Nablus is one and a quarter English miles. 

• Niblus was inhabited in the twelfth century. The Samaritan old 



ERNOUVS ACCOUNT OF PALESTINE. 63 



else\vhere any more than the Jews may sacrifice elsewhere 
save at Jerusalem. Thither come the Samaritans from the 
land of Egypt, and from the land of Damascus,^ and from 
all the Paynim lands, where they dwell. These folk come 
thither on the day of Passover, and their Passover is when 
the Jews hold it. There they sacrifice 

Five leagues from Naples is a castle called Beteron. 
Now it happened once of old that a seneschal of Nebuchad- 
nezzar, who was King of Persia, besieged this castle. This 
seneschal was called Holophernes.^ 

Two leagues from Naples is a city called Sabat,^ and it is 
on the road which goes from Naples to Nazareth. At this 
place the body of Monseigneur St. John Baptist was buried. 
Thither his disciples brought him, when Herod had had his 
head cut off. A little after, when Herod's wife heard that 
he was buried, she sent thither and had his bones taken 
from the earth and burnt, and the powder sold, and for 
this reason children still on St. John's night make a fire of 
bones, because his bones were burned.* 

From Naples to Jerusalem it is twelve leagues, and from 
Naples to Nazareth twelve leagues. So Naples is half-way 
from Nazareth and from Jerusalem.^ Now, from Naples to 

synagogue appears to have been south-west of the town, near the 
tower with a Samaritan text in its wall. 

^ The Samaritan colonies in Alexandria and Damascus still existed 
in the seventeenth century. 

^ The author exaggerates the historical errors of the book of Judith. 
A paraphrase of the story of Judith here follows. The site of Bethulia 
is here placed near Nablus, not — as usually in the twelfth century — at 
Safed. 

* Sabaste, the true site of Samaria, six English miles from Nablus. 

** Burning bones is as old as the days of Herodotus. Th6 author 
refers to one of the numerous customs of making bonfires on St. John's 
Eve. 

^ True distances : Niblus to Nazareth, thirty-four English miles ; 



64 ERNOUrS ACCOUNT OF PALESTINE. 



Caesarea, it is twelve leagues, and from Naples to the River 
Jordan five leagues ; but not to that place on the river 
where Jesus Christ was baptized, for it is much more from 
Naples to where He was baptized. Yet it is all the same 
river. 

Nablus to Jerusalem, thirty English miles ; Niblus to Cassarea, 
twenty-nine English miles ; Nablus to the nearest point on Jordan, 
seventeen English miles. It will be seen from the foot-notes that 
Ernoul's account is much less accurate than are the preceding 
descriptions. He appears to have copied into his chronicle the work 
of a previous writer describing Jerusalem, and his own account of 
Palestine does not give any clear evidence of personal acquaintance 
with the places described. 



NOTE. 



THE PISCINA INTERIOR. 

As these pages were passing through the press, a new dis- 
covery of great interest was reported by Herr K. Schick, 
namely, that of a large tank to the north-west of St. Anne's 
Church, about lOO feet distant. Crossing a courtyard and 
entering by a narrow passage, a building, measuring about 
70 feet east and west, by 25 north and south, with an apse 
at the east end, is found. Its floor (about on the level 
2,400) is some 7 feet below the general surface of the court- 
yard. Under this building are vaults about 10 feet deep, 
the floor level being that of the surface of the natural rock. 
Through the floor of these vaults a cistern is reached, cut 
in rock to a depth of 30 feet. It lies somewhat at an angle 
to the line of the building with an apse (apparently a 
church), above-mentioned. Its measurement east and west 
from one rock wall to another is 55 feet ; north and south 
it measures 12 J feet, but the north wall is of masonry, 
with four piers standing on rock bases supporting arches ; 
the spaces between the piers have been filled in with 
masonry after building, probably at a later period ; and 
Mr. Schick supposes the pool to have extended further in 
this direction, perhaps in five arcades or porches between 
the piers. A flight of twenty -four steps leads down into 
this pool from the east scarp. 

The church or chapel was probably built at a later 

5 



66 THE PISCINA INTERIOR. 

period, when the surface level was within 6 or 7 feet 
of its present height, after an accumulation of 10 feet of 
earth over the rock, which, as we shall see, seems to have 
been still visible in 1172 A.D. This is also indicated by 
the position of the walls, askew to the pool. The vaults 
from the rock surface were no doubt constructed to bear 
the floor of the new church. 

In a note on the Pool of Bethesda (see ' Bordeaux Pilgrim.' 
P.P.T. edition, p. 54), Sir Charles Wilson has indicated 
(No. 6 of the diagram) the position of the mediaeval Pool of 
Bethesda just where the newly-discovered pool exists. He 
has also shown that the Bethesda of the fourth century A.D. 
was at the Twin Pools (No. 3 of his diagram), at the north- 
west angle of the Haram. 

In an ancient map of Mediaeval Jerusalem published 
with Marino Sanuto's account of the city (1322 A.D.), a 
pool is marked north-west of St. Anne, and shown running 
east and west or across the valley which here exists. The 
pool is that mentioned in the present text (see back, p. 25) 
as the site of Bethesda, though in the second part (see 
back, p. 38) the author inclines to the later identification of 
Bethesda with the Birket Israil — the modern Bethesda. 

The following notices of the pools are of value in con- 
nection with the new discovery : 

The Bordeaux Pilgrim (333 A.D.) speaks of two large 
pools near the Temple — one on the right, the other on the 
left — in addition to the Twin Pools, which he identifies 
with Bethesda. He ascribes these two pools to Solomon 
(see P.P.T. edition of this pilgrim, p. 20). 

In the Onomasticon (Eusebius and Jerome, 330420 A.D.) 
Bethesda is said to have * formerly ' had five porches, ' but 
now is shown as a Twin Pool.' 

Theodosius (530 A.D.) places the Probatica Piscina (z>., 
Bethesda) near a Church of St. Mary. In 570 A.D. Anto- 



THE PISCINA INTERIOR. 67 

ninus Martyr (ch. xxviii.) apparently alludes to the Twin 
Pools as Bethesda. St. Willibald in 723 a.d. only alludes 
to the ' Porch of Solomon where is the pool where the 
infirm wait for the moving of the water.' 

In the Middle Ages, however, the pool near St. Anne — 
perhaps like the Bir Eyub rediscovered and cleared by the 
Franks — becomes more important. Saewuif in 1 102 speaks 
of the Church of St. Anne and * near it Bethsaida {xic), 
having five porches.' 

John of Wurzburg writes, 'in exitu ejusdem ecclesiae ad 
dextram manum non longe per diverticulum est Probatica 
Piscina,' clearly describing the newly-discovered pool. In 
1 172 Theodoricus speaks of the Church of St. Anne: * ad 
cujus aquilonalem partem qui progreditur, in valle profunda, 
juxta lapidosam quendam coUem cui vetus quoddam opus 
incumbit, Piscinam Probaticam inveniet.* The mention of 
an adjacent ' stony hill ' with * remains of ancient work ' 
and a * deep valley ' shows that the accumulation of earth 
over the rock whicn led to the site of the pool being lost 
had probably not yet taken place. 

We have also the two notes in the present text (see 
pp. 25, 38) where first we find notice of the church over 
the fountain — written about half a century after Theo- 
doricus. 

William of Tyre, ch. 1. (see Bongar's * Gesta Dei,' p. 473), 
says of this pool : ' Veteris piscina adhuc vestigia retinens 
quinque porticus habens ... ad quam nunc per porticam 
unam descendiiur et reperitur aqua ibi gustu amara.' 
Hence in his time (about 1 180) the pool had already its 
present form, and was supposed to be only in part 
accessible — one out of five porches being open. The 
bitter water here noticed agrees with Mr. Schick's view 
that the channel found near the pool and leading to the 
Birket Israil was a drain. William of Tyre places Beth- 

■5—2 



68 THE PISCINA INTERIOR. 

esda at the newly-found pool, and mentions the Birket 
Israil as Lacus qiddam. 

In 1283 Brocadus, however, places the Probatica Piscina 
south of the road to the east gate of the city {i.e., at the 
Birket Israil) ; and north of that road he mentions * a very 
large pool/ which he says Hezekiah made, and which he 
calls Piscina Interior, or the ' inner pool/ This becomes 
the recognised name of the St. Anne Pool, after the 
change of situation of Bethesda to its modern traditional 
site. 

John Poloner (1422) speaks of the ' Piscina Interior quae 
est ad S. Annam/ and Marino Sanuto (1322) notices the 
pool by the same name as being near St. Anne. In the 
' Travels of Sir J. Maundeville ' (see Bohn's series, ' Early 
Travels in Palestine,' p. 172) we read that in the Church of 
St. Anne ' is a well in manner of a cistern, which is called 
Probatica Piscina, and which hath five entrances.' Even 
as late as 1509, Anselm says that not far from St. Anne 
towards the House of Pilate (Ecce Homo Arch) is a very 
large pool. 

From these notices we gather the history of the pool. 
It apparently existed in 333 A.D,, and, being rock-cut, may 
be one of the ancient pools of Jerusalem. Josephus, how- 
ever, only mentions one pool (Struthion) in this quarter of 
the city (5 Wars, xi. 4), which appears to have been that 
known as the Twin Pool ' at Antonia/ 

We gather also from the passages cited that the church 
over the pool existed in the Crusading period, but probably 
not earlier, and that the present north wall of the pool 
existed already about 11 80 A.D. , In the twelfth century 
the pool was regarded as the Bethesda (or Bethzatha or 
Bethsaida) of the Gospel (John v. 2), and called the Pro- 
batica Piscina or * Sheep Pool;' but about 1230 A.D. (the 
time of the second Prankish occupation) the Birket IsrAil 



THE PISCINA INTERIOR. 69 

begins to be regarded as Bethesda, although the Piscina 
Interior was known and occasionally called the 'Sheep 
Pool' down to 1500 A.D. 

It may here be noted as of some interest that Marino 
Sanuto gives an account of Hezekiah's alterations in the 
water-supply of Jerusalem. He regards the Piscina In- 
terior as the * Upper Gihon,' and apparently thought that 
originally an aqueduct ran from Birket Mamilla (west of 
the city) across to the Piscina Interior, but that Hezekiah 
diverted the water ' west of the Tower of David ' to the 
Lacus Gerniani (Birket es Sultan). The Birket Mamilla 
is connected by aqueduct with the citadel (near the Jaffa 
Gate), and its level is about no feet above that of the 
Piscina Interior. 

Whether any of these pools can claim to be the true 
Bethesda is doubtful. The word in Hebrew, according to 
Reland, means (Kn^KH''^) ' house of pouring-forth ' (see 
Sir C. Wilson's note in * Bordeaux Pilgrim/ P.P.T. edition, 
p. 45 ; and compare Ashdoth Pisgah, ' the streams of P.') 
The only place near Jerusalem where a periodical 
* troubling of the waters' is now known to occur is the 
Virgin's P'ountain, which Robinson regarded as Bethesda, 
and where the Jews still wash to cure disease. If this be 
the true site, the Probatike, or 'Sheep place,' would be a 
name referring to the collection of flocks for watering at 
this spring. 



THE END. 



BILLING AND SONS, PRINTRRS, GUILDFORD. 



Palestine flilgcima' '^Eext (Sadetn. 



GUIDE-BOOK TO PALESTINE 



(CiRc. A.D. 1350). 



BY 

J. H. BERNARD, D.D. 




LONDON : 
24, HANOVER SQUARE, W 

1894. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

INTRODUCTORY NOTE - - - - - V 
THE PILGRIMAGES WITHIN AND WITHOUT THE CHURCH OF 

THE HOLY SEPULCHRE - - - - - 5 
CONCERNING THE PILGRIMAGES OF THE BLESSED MOUNT 

SION - - - - - - - lO 

CONCERNING THE PILGRIMAGES OF THE MOUNT OF OLIVES- 1 5 

CONCERNING THE PILGRIMAGES OF BETHLEHEM AND HEBRON 24 
CONCERNING THE PILGRIMAGES OF BETHANY AND THE RIVER 

JORDAN - - - - - - - 28 

CONCERNING THE PILGRIMAGES OF TIBERIAS AND THE 

ADJACENT PLACES - - - - - "35 

CONCERNING THE PILGRIMAGES OF DAMASCUS AND ITS 

BORDERS - - - - - - - 37 

INDEX ... - - - 41 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE. 

The guide-book to Palestine here offered to the Palestine 
Pilgrims' Text Society is a translation of a Latin MS. in 
the Library of Trinity College, Dublin (d. 4. 7). It is 
based, in the main, on the account of the Holy Land given 
by Philippus Brusserius Savonensis, whose work has been 
published by Neumann in the O ester reichische Viertel- 
jahresschrift fiir katholische Theologie for 1872 ; but it 
contains a considerable quantity of matter not given by 
Philippus,! though for the most part to be found in the 
works of later writers, such as Marinus Sanutus (13 10), 
Odoricus (1320), and (as Dr. Rohricht has kindly pointed 
out) Poggibonsi (1345). It may be taken as certain that 
this guide-book is later than the work of Philippus, which 
was shown by Neumann to have been composed within 
the last decade and a half of the thirteenth century. How 
much later it is, is not very easy to say; but we shall 
probably not be twenty years wrong in dating it 1350 A.D. 
It can hardly be a more modern compilation than this, for 

^ The work has been divided into sections for convenience of 
reference. Those which do not appear in the texts of Philippus, 
printed by Neumann, are : Nos. 3, 12, 19, 28-30, 32-40, 43-48, 50, 57, 
62, 64, 69, 72, 'j'})^ 76, 79, 82, 89, 90, 100, 102, 106, no, 116, 118, 119, 
124, 132, 136-139, 142, 149, 152, 155, 166-176, 178, 201, 204, 205, 215, 
216. 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE 



the original MS. is of the fourteenth or (possibly) early 
fifteenth century. The colophon at the end of the MS. 
I read as follows : Expliciunt peregrinatiojies totius terre 
sancte s. m. p. de m. ; but I can offer no explanation of the 
concluding letters. Were such explanation forthcoming, 
the date of the compilation might perhaps be more exactly 
determined. 

The relations between the various extant descriptions 
of the Holy Land written in Crusading times are very 
complex. Like the compilers of modern guide-books, the 
authors did not scruple to borrow liberally from the works 
of their predecessors ; and, even where the book professes 
to be the record of personal travels, the phrases of the 
older itineraries continually appear. The pilgrimages 
which have most in common with the present little book 
are those of Theoderich, John of Wiirzburg, Fetellus, and 
Felix Fabri. Fabri's account is at least a hundred years 
later, while the others are a couple of centuries earlier than 
the work of this Innominatus. The Holy Places at which 
indulgences, whether plenary (absolutid) or temporary 
{septem annorum et septem guarentenarum), might be 
obtained are practically the same as those to which the 
like privileges are attached by Quaresmius.^ 

Rohricht has given a full catalogue of the MSS. of 
Philippus in his Bibliotheca Geographica Palestinae (p. 60), 
and it is to be desired that some closer examination of 
these should be made than they have yet received. In Neu- 
mann's edition only five are used, and of these the Bruges 



'^ Elucidatio Terrae Sanctae, 1649. 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE vii 



MS. differs so much from the others that it plainly belongs 
to a quite different recension. To give a full discussion 
of the sources from which the Dublin MS. was compiled 
would be thus impossible in the absence of exact know- 
ledge as to the varying texts of Philippus. But in any 
case from such an investigation for our present purposes 
little would be gained, for we can approximately determine 
from internal evidence the date at which the compilation 
was made. As a guide-book, it goes more into detail and 
is more systematic than any of the other Crusading accounts 
as far as I know. A few simple notes have been added, 
mainly with the object of comparing the account given by 
our author with that of the other Crusading pilgrims.^ 

J. H. B. 

^ The works of the pilgrims are in all cases referred to in the 
editions of the Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society. 



ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND, 

WRITTEN ABOUT 1350 A.D. 



TRANSLATION. 



(i) Those who desire to know the pilgrimages of the 
glorious and holy city of Jerusalem, as of the rest of the 
Holy Land, should, as it seems to me, proceed to Nazareth 
first ; for it is fitting that we should commence our 
pilgrimage thence, where the beginnings of our redemption 
were. 

(2) The city of Nazareth is situated fourteen^ miles east of 
Acon.2 It is properly called the City of the Saviour, for in 
it was He conceived and nurtured. There did the Virgin 
Mary dwell after that she was espoused to Joseph ; to 
whom the angel Gabriel was sent from the Lord to bring 
the first tidings of our salvation. 

This is that city, holy and dear to God, in which ' the 
Word was made flesh,' and that flower which is better than 
all spices budded in the Virgin's womb, whence ' Nazareth ' 
is fitly interpreted ' flower.'^ It rejoices in this special 
privilege over all other cities, that in it the Lord provided 

1 The Bruges MS. of Philippus has ' fifteen.' 

2 ''Akka or St. Jean d'Acre. 

3 The etymology which connects Nazareth with Netser=skoot or 
sprout^ is familiar from its adoption by commentators on Matt. ii. 23. 

I 



ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 



the beginning of our salvation, and in it He deigned to be 
nurtured and to be subject to His parents, to whom the 
Father subjected all things which are in heaven and 
earth. (3) And there is a little marble pillar, which the 
Virgin embraced for fear of the sudden vision of the 
angel ; and hard by the pillar is the place where the angel 
Gabriel stood and said, * Hail, thou that art full of grace : 
the Lord be with thee,' etc. And there is absolution from 
pain and guilt. 

(4) In Nazareth there flows a little fountain from which 
the boy Jesus used to draw water, and thence supply His 
mother and Himself. 

(5) One mile south from Nazareth is the place called 
The Precipice,^ where the Jews wished to fling Jesus down, 
envying His parents for His prudence, when He disap- 
peared from their sight in a moment. 

(6) Four miles from Nazareth is the city called Sophirus,^ 
whence came Anna, the mother of the Virgin Mary, the 
mother of Christ. Between it and Nazareth is a perpetual 
spring, supplying abundant streams of water, which is 
called the Fountain of Sophirus, etc. 

(7) Two miles from Sophirus is Cana of Galilee, where 
the Lord Jesus turned the water into wine ; whence were 
Simon the Cananite and Nathanael. 

(8) One mile south of Nazareth is Sasron,^ a village where 
were born James and John the sons of Zebedee. 

(9) Six miles east from Nazareth is Mount Tabor, an 
exceeding high mountain, where the Lord was transfigured, 
Moses and Elias being present, before Peter, James, and 
John, showing the glory of His future resurrection. 
(10) There the voice came from heaven, saying, * This is 
My beloved Son in whom I am well pleased ; hear ye Him.' 

(11) For the honour and veneration due to the place, 
^ /edel Kafsy. ^ Seffurieh, 3 Ydfa. 



ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 



the Christians of former times built a monastery there, 
(12) which lately was completely destroyed by the 
Saracens. There is absolution from pain and guilt. 

(13) At the foot of this mountain Melchizedek met 
Abraham returning from the slaughter of Amalek,^ and 
presented him with bread and wine, which signifies the 
altar of Christ under the dispensation of grace. 

(14) Two miles from Tabor is the city of Nain, situated 
at the foot of Mount Endor^ southwards, at the gate of 
which Jesus restored to life the son of the widow woman. 

(15) Thirty-eight miles due south from Nazareth is 
Sebaste, formerly called Samaria, where the body of 
St. John the Baptist was buried between the prophets 
Elisha and Obadiah, having been translated from the 
town of Macheron^ beyond Jordan, where he lay headless. 

(16) Ten miles from Sebaste is the city of Neapolis, 
formerly called Sichem, from Sichem the son of Emor, or 
Sychar, as it is called in the Gospel, where were buried the 
bones of Joseph the son of Jacob, when they were brought 
up from Egypt. There, too, one mile southward outside 
the city is Jacob's Well, by which Jesus sat, wearied with 
His journey, when He asked water from the woman of 
Samaria. There also are the two hills or hillocks, viz., 
Dan and Bethel, where King Jeroboam placed the golden 
calves and commanded to worship them, saying, 'These 
be thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of 
Egypt.* 

(17) From Neapolis to Jerusalem it is thirty-five miles. 

(18) Jerusalem is the holy city of holy cities, the 

' Antoninus Martyr (who, like our author, confounds Amalek with 
Chedorlaomer) places the scene of the meeting of Melchizedek and 
Abraham at Golgotha. 

2 See John of Wurzburg, p. 5. 

3 Machaerus, now Mekaur, 



ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 



mistress of nations, the chief of provinces, called the City 
of the Great King, and placed in the midst of the earth, 
being as it were the centre of the universe, so that * all 
nations might flow unto it.' The possession of patriarchs, 
the nurse of prophets, the teacher of apostles, the cradle 
of our salvation, the country of the Lord, the mother of 
faith, even as Rome is the mother of the faithful, chosen 
of God and sanctified, where stood the feet of the Lord, 
honoured by angels, frequented by every nation under 
heaven.^ 

It is built on a high mountain, with hills on every side, 
in that part of Syria which is called Judaea and Palestine, 
flowing with milk and honey, abounding in corn, wine, and 
oil, and all temporal goods ; but it is lacking in rivers, 
for it has no fountains except one, which is named Sion,^ 
flowing under Mount Sion through the middle of the 
Valley of Jehoshaphat, which sometimes supplies abundant 
water, but more generally little or none. There are both 
inside and outside the city many cisterns for rain-water, 
which suffice both men and beasts for drinking and for 
other necessary purposes. (19) There is also one great 
and very wonderful aqueduct, coming from the city called 
St. Abraham, which is situated in the vale of Hebron, 
distant from Jerusalem twenty-four miles to the south. 

(20) The city had many and diverse names from various 
events in its history, and given by diff*erent nations in 
different languages. First it was called Jebus, then Salem ; 
from which two names it has its third name Jerusalem. It 
is also called Hierosolima, and Solima, and Luz, and 
Bethel. It was also called ^Elia, from ^lius the Roman 

' Several phrases in this section seem to have been taken originally 
from a treatise of Bernard of Clairvaux, Liber ad Milites Templi^ 
addressed to the Templars (see ch. v., § 11). 

2 Apparently Siloam is intended here. 



ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 



quaestor, who rebuilt it in the place where it is now after 
its destruction by Titus and Vespasian. 

But the city of Jerusalem, in which the Lord exhibited 
in bodily form the mysteries of our redemption, even as it 
exceeds all other places and cities in the privilege of its 
sanctity and the excellence of its dignity, so did it draw 
very many religious persons to itself * by the smell of a full 
field which the Lord hath blessed. 'i It has Sion on the 
south where it had the citadel, which was called the City 
of David. It has Mount Olivet on the east. 

(21) THE PILGRIMAGES WITHIN AND WITHOUT THE 
CHURCH OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. 

(22) First, when you have entered the church, you shall 
find a black marble stone upon which Joseph of Arimathea 
and Nicodemus washed the body of Christ, and sprinkled 
it with spices, when they took it down from the cross. 
And there is absolution from pain and guilt. 

(23) Thence you shall come to Mount Calvary, where 
Jesus was crucified, where the blood issuing from His side 
penetrated through that dense and hard rock, and left the 
colour of blood there to this day. And there is absolution 
from pain and guilt. 

(24) For the blood sank in under Mount Calvary, in 
that part which is called Golgotha, where was found the. 
head of Adam the first man ; even up to the mouth of the 
aforesaid head did it penetrate through the rock. There 
is absolution for seven years and seven Lenten seasons.^ 

(25) Thence you shall come to the glorious sepulchre of 
the Lord, which up to the time of the Emperor -^lius 

^ Gen. xxvii. 27. 

2 This seems to be the regular formula {indulgentia septem annorum 
et septem guarentenarum) for a temporary as distinct from a plenary 
indulgence {absolutio a poena et culpcC). See Introductory Note, p. vi. 



ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 



Hadrian was without the gate. This emperor enlarged the 
city so much that he enclosed the place of the Lord's 
sepulchre within the circuit of the walls, in which place 
afterwards the Christians, for the reverence they had to the 
Lord's sepulchre, built the glorious church of the Lord's 
Resurrection within the city, with elaborate workmanship, 
of suitable shape, and round in form, with one window 
opened in the roof. This not undeservedly holds the chief 
place among the holy and memorable sites. In this place 
the precious body of the Lord was honourably buried with 
spices, and here He rested until the third day ; but on the 
third day He rose again as He had said, ' On the third 
day I shall rise again.' And there is absolution from pain 
and guilt. 

(26) Thence you shall come to the place where our Lord 
rising from the dead appeared first to Mary Magdalene 
when she thought that He was the gardener, and said, 
* Sir, if thou have borne Him hence, tell me where thou 
hast laid Him,' etc.^ In which place is a holy altar in 
honour of that appearance, which is before the door of the 
chapel of the blessed Virgin. And there is absolution 
from pain and guilt. 

(27) Thence you shall enter the chapel of blessed Mary, 
and there you shall find a portion, four feet long, of the 
pillar to which Jesus was bound, and where He was 
scourged ; it is placed as it were in the partition wall on 
the right-hand side as you go into the chapel. And there 
is absolution from pain and guilt. 

(28) Also in the same chapel is the place in front of the 
altar where a certain dead man was revived by virtue of 
the holy cross immediately after its glorious discovery 
in the presence of Helena, the mother of the Emperor 



John XX. 15. 



ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 



Constantine. And there is absolution for seven years and 
seven Lenten seasons. 

(29) There is also the place near the altar where the 
holy cross stood for a long time, and was most devoutly 
adored by faithful Christians. And there is absolution for 
seven years and seven Lenten seasons. 

(30) Thence you shall come to the place where Christ 
was for us imprisoned, bound, beaten ; there is now a 
small chapel there. And there is absolution from pain 
and guilt. 

(31) Thence when you have gone out of the door of that 
chapel in front of a certain altar, you shall find a certain 
stone to which Jesus was chained while His cross was 
being erected. And there is absolution for seven years and 
seven Lenten seasons. 

(32) Thence you shall go to the place where soldiers 
cast lots for the garments of Christ, as it is written, ' And 
for My vesture did they cast lots.' And there is absolution 
for seven years and seven Lenten seasons. 

(33) Thence you shall go to a place where you descend 
to a certain chapel built at a depth of twenty-eight steps ; 
there are buried the bodies of Mary the mother of James, 
and Mary Salome, under a certain altar. And there is 
absolution for seven years and seven Lenten seasons. 

(34) Near the altar on the south side is a stone chair on 
which St. Helena sat when she caused search to be made 
for the holy cross of the Lord. And there is absolution 
for seven years and seven Lenten seasons. 

(35) Also there is a certain window in the wall at the 
north side, through which it is said are heard the shrieks 
of the souls in purgatory. 

(36) Also in the same chapel are four stone pillars, 
which, it is said, sweat water night and day on account of 
Christ's passion. 



ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 



(37) Thence you shall descend twelve steps to another 
yet lower chapel, in which was found in a very deep place 
the holy cross. The place is still visible where the cross of 
the Lord lay. And there is absolution from pain and guilt. 

(^S) Thence you shall go up to the first gate by which 
you entered, and on the left side you shall find a marble pillar 
under a certain altar, near which it is said that Jesus was 
crowned with the crown of thorns before He was placed 
upon the cross. And there is an indulgence for seven 
years and seven Lenten seasons. 

(39) Thence you come to Golgotha, which is called The 
Pavement, where Pilate sat before the tribunal when he 
led Jesus outside the city. * It was the passover about the 
sixth hour,' according to John. Golgotha is a place under 
Mount Calvary, as it were concave ; and there the blood 
is visible as above related. 

(40) Thence you come to the doors, and in the midst of 
the choir is the place called the Centre of the World, 
where our Lord Jesus Christ laid His finger, saying, 'This 
is the centre of the world. '^ And there is an indulgence 
for seven years and seven Lenten seasons. 

It should also be known that at the great altar is an 
indulgence for seven years and seven Lenten seasons, and 
at all the altars constructed within the church. 

(41) Thence you come to a pillar near the chamber of 
the holy sepulchre, above which is painted the image of 
St. Pantaleon,2 at which it is said that the following miracle 

1 The idea that Jerusalem was the ' centre of the world ' seems to 
have originated in some confused reminiscence of Ps, Ixxiv. 12 and 
Ezek. xxxviii. 12. 

2 This Pantaleon is probably not the Patriarch of Jerusalem of the 
thirteenth century, afterwards Pope Urban IV., but a person of this 
name who was martyred under Galerius. Many miracles are attributed 
to him. See AA. SS., July 27. Marinus Sanutus, iii. 14, 8, has this 
miracle story. 



ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 



once took place. A certain Saracen entered the Church of 
the Holy Sepulchre, and looking round saw the aforesaid 
image painted above the pillar. Then he tore out the 
eyes of the image, and straightway his own eyes fell out 
on the ground. 

(42) Thence you come to the gate by which blessed 
Mary of Egypt was not able to enter, although the other 
Christians did, until she promised that she would do 
penance ; wliere she heard a voice, ' If thou crossest the 
Jordan, thou shalt be whole.'^ And that gate is placed on 
the north side of the holy sepulchre in a secret place, and 
there is the chapel of the aforesaid St. Mary of Egypt. 
And there is an indulgence for seven years and seven 
Lenten seasons. 

(43) Thence you shall go out of the Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre, and on the left hand you shall find a little 
chapel of the Blessed Virgin Mary, under Mount Calvary, 
where she stood gazing upon her Son hanging on the 
cross. And there the Nubians^ minister. And there is 
an indulgence for seven years and seven Lenten seasons. 

(44) Thence you shall come to the chapel of St. John 
the Evangelist, joined on to the chapel of blessed Mary, 
where our Saviour commended the Virgin Mother to him, 
who was a virgin. And there the Jacobites minister. 
And there is an indulgence for seven years and seven 
Lenten seasons. 

(45) Thence you come to a chapel hard by, built in 
honour of St. John the Baptist. Indulgence for seven 
years and seven Lenten seasons. 

^ The story of St. Mary of Egypt was very widely spread in the 
Middle Ages. She lived in the beginning of the sixth century. Cf. 
Abbot Daniel, p. 18, and §§ 75, 152, m/ra. 

^ I.e., the Abyssinian Christians. An account of them is given by 
Fabri, i., p. 346, and ii., p. 388. See also i., p. 373. 



ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 



(46) Then you shall have opposite you a chapel built in 
honour of St. Mary Magdalene, where along with the 
other women she wept and bewailed the Lord as He hung 
on the cross. And there the cinctured Christians^ minister. 
And there is an indulgence for seven years and seven 
Lenten seasons. 

(47) Thence you come to a rock in front of the gates of 
the church, upon which our Lord rested when He came 
bearing His cross to Mount Calvary. And 'there is an 
indulgence for seven years and seven Lenten seasons. 

(48) All the aforesaid most holy places are within or 
hard by the sacred and holy church of the Passion and 
Sepulchre of the Lord. 

CONCERNING THE PILGRIMAGES OF THE BLESSED 
MOUNT SION. 

(49) Thence you shall come to Mbunt Sion, and on the 
way you shall find the church of blessed James the son of 
Zebedee, in which is the place whare once was placed the 
head of this James when brought y^Dy the hands of angels 
from Joppa. There he was beheaded, as some say ; but 
others say that he was beheaded in Jerusalem, where his 
church is, which I believe to be more true. (50) And 
there are shown a bone of this most blessed James, and 
a bone of blessed George the Martyr. And there is an 
indulgence for seven years and seven Lenten seasons. 
And there are the Armenian monks.^ 

(51) Thence you shall go to the church of St. Saviour 

^ We find from Felix Fabri (i., p. 435) that the * cinctured 
Christians' were the Georgians, The description given by Fabri of 
the various religious bodies at Jerusalem in his time is very instructive. 
See §§ 169, 204, m/ra, and also Imiom., v. 2 (p. 28). 

2 This was a very wealthy establishment. There is still a great 
Armenian convent on Mount Sion, dedicated to St. James, and the 
site of his martyrdom is there pointed out. 



ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 



in Mount Sion, which was formerly the house of Caiaphas, 
to which Jesus was first brought after His arrest, and 
severely scourged. And there in the wall outside the gate 
of the church is a part of the pillar to which He was bound. 
Also in the same place Peter for the first time denied 
Christ * before the cock crew ' ; and sitting there in the 
hall with the servants he warmed himself at the * fire of 
coals, for it was cold.'^ There, too, is the prison where the 
Jews laid Jesus, and kept Him until the morning ; but 
when morning was come they sent Him bound to Pilate. 
There, too, is a great stone above the altar, said to have 
been the stone which was first laid upon the tomb of the 
Lord, according to Mark's * Who shall roll us away the 
stone from the door of the tomb?' etc. And there is 
absolution from pain and guilt. 

(52) Thence you come to the place where once was the 
cell where blessed Mary lodged for fourteen years after the 
Lord's ascension to heaven ; and there she departed to the 
Lord from this wicked world. And there is absolution 
from pain and guilt. 

(53) Thence you come hard by to the place where was 
the church in which blessed John the Evangelist celebrated 
Mass, in presence of the Blessed Virgin Mary, as long as 
blessed Mary lived in this world.^ And there is an in- 
dulgence for seven years and seven Lenten seasons. 

(54) Thence you come to the place where the Apostles 
chose blessed Matthias as an Apostle in the room of Judas 
the traitor. And there is an indulgence for seven years 
and seven Lenten seasons. 

(55) There, too, is the place where the Apostles chose 
the seven deacons, Stephen, Philip, Nicanor, and their 
fellows, to preach the Word of God. (56) And there is 

^ John xviii. 18. 

2 C/. Fabri, i., pp. 327, 328 ; see § 58, m/ra. 



ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 



another place there where the Apostles chose blessed' 
James to be first Bishop of Jerusalem, who afterwards, 
martyred by the stroke of a fuller's club, departed to 
Christ. 

(57) Then you come, near the church doors, to the 
oratory of the Blessed Virgin Mary, where she used to pray 
after the Lord's ascension to heaven. And there is an 
indulgence for seven years and seven Lenten seasons. 

(58) Also, on the other side of the church doors, is a 
certain red stone, which was used for an altar. On it 
blessed John the Evangelist celebrated Mass, in presence of 
the Blessed Virgin Mary. It was transported from Mount 
Sion by the hands of angels at the prayers of blessed 
Thomas the Apostle when returning to India. And there 
is an indulgence for seven years and seven Lenten seasons. 

(59) Thence you shall enter the church, and near the 
great altar on the south side is the place where the Lord 
Jesus supped with His disciples, and communicated them, 
saying, 'Take, eat, this is My body which is given for 

i you ; do this in remembrance of Me.' And there is absolu- 
tion from pain and guilt. And in the same place He 
washed His disciples' feet. 

(60) Then you go out of the church, and you come to a 
barrier, and near there is the place where the Lord Jesus 
appeared to His disciples, * the doors being shut, and stood 
in the midst, and said. Peace be unto you ; and saith to 
Thomas, Reach hither thy finger, and thrust thy hand into 
my side, and be not faithless, but believing.'^ And there . 
is an indulgence for seven years and seven Lenten seasons. 

(61) Then you ascend above the church by steps, and 
there is the place where the Apostles, after the Lord's 
ascension, abode until the Day of Pentecost, waiting for the 
promised Holy Spirit with fastings and prayers. But on 

^ John XX. 26. 



ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 13 

the Day of Pentecost they received, for strengthening, the 
Holy Spirit, in the form of fire, with knowledge of all 
tongues. And a sudden sound from heaven having come 
over the place, a multitude of Jews flowed in, to whom 
blessed Peter expounded Joel's prophecy, and converted 
many to the faith. And there is absolution from pain and 
guilt. 

(62) Thence you go down to the cemetery ; and there, 
near the church on the north side, is a stone on which Jesus 
stood when He preached to the multitude. And there 
is an indulgence for seven years and seven Lenten seasons. 

(63) Thence you go under the church, and there is the 
sepulchre of King David and Solomon his son, where were 
laid all the kings of Jerusalem. And near there David 
composed seven psalms. And there is an indulgence for 
seven years and seven Lenten seasons. 

(64) Then you come to the place where the water was 
warmed for washing the disciples' feet at the Lord's 
Supper. 

(65) Then you come to the sepulchre of blessed Stephen, 
the first martyr. There his body was laid after its dis- 
covery, but now it is at Rome, in the same sarcophagus with 
the body of blessed Laurence.^ And there is an indulgence 
for seven years and seven Lenten seasons. 

(66) As you go down Mount Sion is the place where the 
Apostles, as they bore the body of the Blessed Virgin to 
burial in the Valley of Jehoshaphat, laid down the bier. 
And the Jews who lived in the village hard by collected 
at the spot, that they might carry off the body to burn it. 

" Laurence suffered martyrdom under Valerian. According to the 
martyrologies, it was in the time of Theodosius the younger that the 
relics of St. Stephen and St. Laurence were placed in the same 
sarcophagus. May 7 is the day of commemoration of * Laurentius 
cum Stephano' in the West. - 



14 ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 

Then the chief priest of the Jews, more bold and imprudent 
than the rest, laid his hand on the bier, whereupon his 
hands were withered. Then he besought blessed Peter to 
pray for him, and to restore his hands to him. To whom 
blessed Peter said, * If thou believest that this is the mother 
of Christ, and art willing to be baptized, thou shalt be made 
whole.' And he believed, and was restored to his former 
health.^ And there is an indulgence for seven years and 
seven Lenten seasons. 

(6y) Then you come to a place where once was a church, 
commonly called the church of the Cockcrowing, in which 
was a deep cavern, where Peter repented when he denied 
Christ, and ' wept bitterly.' 

(68) Then three long furlongs southward is that field 
which was bought for the thirty pieces of silver for which 
our Lord was sold ; which is called in Hebrew Aceldama, 
that is, ' the field of blood,' unto this day. 

(69) Then you come to a holy field where ofttimes the 
Apostles lodged before Christ's Passion, and their dwellings 
are yet visible. And there is an indulgence for seven years 
and seven Lenten seasons. 

(70) Then you come to the Pool of Siloam, where the 
Lord gave sight to the man born blind. 

(71) Then you come to a place hard by where Isaiah, the 
prophet, was sawn asunder with a saw of wood by Man- 
asseh,^ King of Jerusalem, and there he rests, buried under 
the Oak of Rogel. 

(72) Then you come to the fountain of blessed Mary, 
where she washed the little clothes of her blessed Son. 

^ This story is told by several of the med"?eval pilgrims ; it is 
extant in various forms. Cf. the account in the Transitus Mariae^ 
printed in Tischendorf's Apocalypses Apocryphae. 

"^ Cf. 2 Kings xxi. 16 and Heb. xi. 37. That the saw was a wooden 
one is a tradition as old as Justin Martyr. 



ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 15 

There both Saracens and Christians now bathe, and are 
often relieved from their infirmities. And there is an 
indulgence for seven years and seven Lenten seasons. 

(73) Then you come to the place where blessed James 
the Less used to live, and where he was buried after he was 
flung down from the temple by the Jews. And there 
is an indulgence for seven years and seven Lenten seasons. 

CONCERNING THE PILGRIMAGES OF THE MOUNT OF 
OLIVES. 

(74) Mount Olivet is one mile east of Jerusalem — the 
fruitful mountain, the Mount of Olives — worthy of all 
veneration. On this holy and most worthy mountain the 
Lord used to sit, opposite the temple, when His disciples 
sought from Him the signs of His coming to judgment, and 
of the end of the age. On this mountain also ofttimes He 
used to go with His disciples for prayer, and especially 
when His Passion was coming on. And there is shown the 
place in the church where our Lord, in the presence of His 
disciples, ascended gloriously to heaven ; and the stone 
which He had under His feet still retains their impression, 
and it is visible to this day. And there is absolution from 
pain and guilt. 

(75) Then you come to a certain chapel on the aforesaid 
mountain in which blessed Pelagia of Antioch did penance ; 
there, too, she was buried. There is a stone over her 
tomb which no one can pass by or go round unless he first 
have made a full confession. Here it is said that blessed 
Mary of Egypt was buried up to the time that the Latins 
took the Holy Land.^ After that they transported her 
body beyond the sea to a town called Bleisis,^ in the 

^ I.e., up to the time of the First Crusade and the capture of Jeru- 
salem in 1099. 
2 /.e.f Blois. 



l6 ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 

kingdom of France. And there is an indulgence for seven 
years and seven Lenten seasons. 

(76) Then you come to. the place where the Apostles 
composed the Symbol of the Faith. And there is an 
indulgence for seven years and seven Lenten seasons. 

(77) Then you come to a certain church in which the 
Lord Jesus taught his Apostles to pray, saying, ' Thus ye 
shall pray,' and saying, ' Our Father which art in heaven,' 
etc. And there is an indulgence for seven years and seven 
Lenten seasons. 

(yS) Then you come to a declivity of Mount Olivet, two 
furlongs eastward, to Bethphage, which is, being inter- 
preted, the House of Figs. There our Lord sent two of His 
disciples, viz., Peter and Philip, for the ass and her colt on 
Palm Sunday, saying, * Go into the village over against you, 
and straightway ye shall find an ass tied, and a colt with 
her ; and they, having gone, brought the ass and the colt, 
and they set Him thereon.'^ And He was led upon the ass 
from that place to Jerusalem with hymns and praises, and 
was received with honour by the children of the Hebrews 
bearing palm branches. And there is an indulgence for 
seven years and seven Lenten seasons. 

(79) Then you come to a place where blessed Mary 
received a palm from the angel, in token of her departure 
from this world to her longed-for home. And there 
is an indulgence for seven years and seven Lenten seasons. 

(80) The neighbouring mountain to Mount Olivet, on 
the north side, is the Mount of Offence ; they are divided 
by the road which leads from the Valley of Jehoshaphat to 
Bethany. It was called the Mount of Offence because 
King Solomon set up there the idol Moloch, and wor- 
shipped it.2 The place is called Galilee, where our Lord 

^ Matt. xxi. 2, 7. 

2 C/. I Kings xi. 7 and 2 Kings xxiii. 13. 



ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 



appeared to the disciples when He had risen from the 
dead, according to the word of the angel, which said, ' Go, 
tell His disciples and Peter that He goeth before you into 
Galilee.'^ There was formerly a church here, but it was 
destroyed by the Saracens. And there is an indulgence 
for seven years and seven Lenten seasons. 

(8i) Then you come by the slope of the mountain to the 
stone upon which Jesus stood and preached to the multi- 
tude; where He pointed out the city of Jerusalem, and 
wept over it, saying, ' If thou hadst known, even thou, that 
the days shall come upon thee, that thine enemies shall 
cast a trench about thee, and compass thee round, and shall 
lay thee even with the ground,'^ etc., which was fulfilled, 
under Titus and Vespasian, Emperors of the Romans. 
And there is an indulgence for seven years and seven 
Lenten seasons. 

(82) Then you come to the place where blessed Mary 
threw her girdle to blessed Thomas the Apostle. And 
there is an indulgence for seven years and seven Lenten 
seasons. 

(83) Then you come to the Garden of Gethsemane, 
under the foot of Mount Olivet, in the Valley of 
Jehoshaphat, where our Lord is to judge the quick and 
dead. (84) And there is the place where the Lord Jesus 
was taken captive by the Jews, where Judas Iscariot kissed 
Him, saying, * Hail, Master'; and there the Jews before 
Him ' went backwards and fell to the ground ' at the voice 
of Christ, when He said * I am He,' according to John.^ 
And there is an indulgence for seven years and seven 
Lenten seasons. 

(85) Then you come to the place where the Lord Jesus, 
being withdrawn from His disciples 'about a stone's cast,'* 

^ Matt, xxviii. 7. ^ Luke xix. 42-44. 

3 John xviii. 6. ■♦ Luke xxii. 41. 

2 



1 8 ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 

prayed to the Father, saying, ' Father, if it be possible, let 
this cup pass from Me : nevertheless, not My will, but 
Thine, be done.' And in the same place ' appeared an 
angel unto Him from heaven, strengthening Him. And 
His sweat was as it were drops of blood falling down to 
the ground.' {S6) There, too, is the stone which our Lord, 
when He was praying, grasped for the bitterness of His 
Passion, and the imprint of His fingers is still plain. And 
there is an indulgence for seven years and seven Lenten 
seasons. 

(87) Then you come to the place where ' He took with 
Him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, and began to be 
sorrowful and very heavy,' saying, * My soul is exceeding 
sorrowful, even unto death': and returning. He found the 
other disciples sleeping, and said to them, ' Could ye not 
watch with Me one hour ? Watch and pray that ye enter 
not into temptation.'^ And there is an indulgence for 
seven years and seven Lenten seasons. 

(88) Then you come to a church in the Valley of 
Jehoshaphat where is the tomb of the glorious Virgin 
very deep down, forty-eight steps leading to it. And 
there is absolution from pain and guilt. 

It should be observed that the Valley of Jehoshaphat 
is so called after a certain King of Jerusalem, by name 
Jehoshaphat, who was buried there : his tomb, very 
elaborately built, is still visible. 

(89) Thence you shall cross the brook Kedron, where 
for many years the sign of the Lord's cross lay. The 
Sibyl, when she was coming to Jerusalem to hear the 
wisdom of Solomon, refused to cross over it. (90) And 
you shall come to the place where blessed Stephen was 
bound when he was stoned by the Jews, who, kneeling 
down on the ground, prayed for them who were stoning 

^ Matt. xxvi. 37-41. 



ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 19 

him, saying, ' Lord, lay not this sin to their charge,'^ etc. 
And there is an indulgence for seven years and seven 
Lenten seasons. 

(91) Then you come to the golden gates^ through which 
the Lord Jesus entered on Palm Sunday, sitting on an 
ass, as it said in the Gospel. And there is an indulgence 
for seven years and seven Lenten seasons. 

(92) Then a bow-shot off is the temple of the Lord, 
which has four entrances and twelve gates. 

The holy temple of the Lord, which was built by 
Solomon on Mount Moriah at the threshing-floor of Oman 
the Jebusite, is not to be passed by among the holy places 
worthy of veneration.^ It was, indeed, first destroyed by the 
Babylonians, and afterwards by the Romans ; but it was 
rebuilt in the same place in a round form, suitably and 
magnificently, with wonderful and subtle workmanship, by 
faithful and godly men. In this temple is the rock above 
which it is said that the destroying angel stood and 
appeared to David, who, for the sin of numbering the 
people which was done at David's command, slew count- 
less thousands of them. Indeed, the Saracens to this day 
call the Lord's temple The Rock : it is held in so great 
veneration that none of them dare defile it with any filth, 
as they defile the other holy places ; but from remote and 
far-distant regions they come to adore it from the days of 
Solomon to the present time. Whenever the Saracens 
have possession of the holy city, Jerusalem, they allow no 
Ch/istian to enter the temple. It is believed by some that 
to this day the ark of the Lord is shut up in the aforesaid 
rock, and that Josiah, King of Israel, foreseeing the im- 
pending destruction of the city, ordered it to be placed in 

^ Acts vii. 60. 2 The Golifen Gate. 

3 Reading uenerabilia with the Bruges MS. of Philippus, instead 
oiinnumerabilia of the Dublin MS. 



20 ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 

the sanctuary of the temple, and hidden there. (93) And 
in this holy and venerable place, when Solomon had 
finished the work and was offering sacrifice to the Lord, 
a cloud filled the house, and the glory of the Lord appeared, 
and * the fire came down from heaven and consumed the 
burnt offering and the sacrifices,' and the majesty of the 
Lord filled the house of the Lord, and 'all the children 
of Israel saw the fire coming down and the glory of the 
Lord upon the house.' And when Solomon, * kneeling on 
his knees with his hands spread up to heaven,'^ had prayed 
that the supplications of him who should enter the temple 
to seek benefits from the Lord should be heard, the Lord 
appeared to him, saying, * I have heard thy prayer that 
thou hast made before Me : I have hallowed this house 
which thou hast built for Me j'^ ' Mine eyes shall be open, 
and Mine ears attent unto the prayer that is made in this 
place : I have chosen and sanctified this house for My- 
self.'^ (94) In this temple the Blessed Virgin Mary, until 
she was espoused to Joseph, is said to have ministered 
with the other virgins, making ready the vessels of the 
temple and the priestly vestments, learning the sacred 
letters, prudently and humbly living, in fastings, watchings, 
and prayers, and study of the Divine Scriptures. And in 
her infant years, being brought by her parents to the 
temple that they might present her before the Lord, she 
is said to have ascended by herself without any dif^culty 
all the steps leading up to the temple ; which thing seemed 
a marvel in the eyes of all, and was unheard of before for 
a little child.* In this temple, while holy Zacharias was 
offering incense to the Lord, the angel Gabriel appeared 
to him, announcing that his prayer was heard by God. 

^ I Kings viii. 54. ^ j Kings ix. 3. 3 2 Chron. vii. 15, 16. 

4 This is all to be found in the Apocryphal Gospels. See Pseudo- 
Matt, cc. iv. and vi., and Protev. ix. 



ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 21 

i ' 

(95) Also in this temple was it that the boy Jesus was 
presented, being taken up in the arms of the righteous 
Simeon, when Simeon by the Holy Spirit recognised his 
Saviour, and said, * Now lettest thou Thy servant de- 
part,'i etc. (96) Also in the same temple Jesus rescued the 
adulterous woman from the hands of the Jews f and there, 
too, Jesus having * made a scourge of small cords, began 
to cast out them that sold and bought, and overthrew the 
seats and tables of the money-changers,'^ saying, ' It is 
written, My house shall be called the house of prayer, but 
ye have made it a den of thieves.'* (97) Also Solomon's 
temple is near ; but Christians do not enter it for fear of 
the Saracens. (98) Also between the temple of the Lord 
and the Golden Gate were the trees from which the 
children plucked the branches when the Lord came to 
Jerusalem sitting upon an ass. And close by, near 
Solomon's temple, in a corner of the city are said to be 
Christ's bedchamber. His bath, and the bed of His mother. 
And there is the sepulchre of St. Simeon. 

(99) Thence you go to the church of blessed Anna, the 
mother of the Virgin Mary, which is near the gate through 
which you would go to the Valley of Jehoshaphat, on the 
north side. Here is the crypt in which the Virgin Mary 
was born, formerly the house of Joachim and blessed Anna 
his wife. (100) Into this Christians do not enter, because 
the Saracens have there built their mosque ; that is, their 
church. 

(loi) Then you come hard by to the pool by the sheep 
market to which an angel of the Lord 'went down at a 
certain season and troubled the water ; whosoever then 
first after the troubling of the water stepped in was made 
whole of whatsoever disease he had.'^ And it is said that 

^ Luke ii. 29. 2 John viii. 3. 3 John ii. 15. 

4 Malt. xxi. 12, 13. 5 John v. 4. 



22 ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 

■ — — — ;, 

in that pool for a long time lay the wood of the cross. 
Also in that pool our Lord cured the paralytic man who 
had lain on his bed for thirty-eight years, to whom He 
said, 'Take up thy bed and walk.'^ And there is an 
indulgence for seven years and seven Lenten seasons. 

(102) Then, close by, you come to the house of the 
rich man who refused the crumbs to Lazarus. 

(103) Then you come to the house of Annas the high 
priest, the father-in-law of Caiaphas, to whom Jesus was 
first brought. 

(104) Then you come to the house of Pilate, where Jesus 
was scourged and mocked by the soldiers, spitted on, 
beaten with rods, crowned with the crown of thorns, and 
finally condemned to death. And there is a road leading 
to the temple of the Lord, by which the Jews came and 
shouted, saying, ' Crucify Him ! crucify Him !' 

(105) Then you come to the house where the Blessed 
Virgin Mary was at school, and near to it is the house in 
which the Jews took counsel to deliver up Jesus by 
treachery and to kill Him. 

(106) Then you come, close by, to the church called St. 
Mary of the Swoon,^ where she swooned for the pain of her 
Son when she saw Him bearing His cross. And there are 
two great white stones in the arch there upon which our 
Lord rested when He bore His cross, and, turning to the 
people, said, ' Daughters of Jerusalem, weep not for Me, 
but for yourselves and for your children.'^ (107) Also near 
the church, it is said, was the palace of King Herod ; and 
near there was the house of Judas the traitor, where he 
lived with his wife and children. 

1 John V. 8. 

2 S. Maria di Spasimo ; this church is mentioned hy Marinus 
Sanutus (iii. 14, 10), and by Fabri, i., p. 447. 

3 Luke xxiii. 28. 



ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 23 

(108) Also there is the road which leads to the gate of 
St. Stephen, outside which he was stoned ; by which road 
the Jews led Jesus, and 'found one Simon, a Cyrenian, 
coming out of the country. Him they compelled to bear 
the cross '^ of Jesus ; and he bore it to Mount Calvary, 
where they crucified Jesus. 

(109) Then you come to the Tower of David, which was 
destroyed, but is now in the same place, having been re- 
built as a fortress by the Sultan, (no) And there Joseph 
of Arimathea was imprisoned for forty-four years after the 
Passion of Christ, until the coming of Titus and Vespasian, 
Emperors of Rome, (in) And there is a gate called the 
Gate of David, outside which Judas hanged himself on a 
certain sycamore-tree. 

(112) Then you come about a bow-shot off to the Lions' 
Cave, where were buried eleven thousand martyrs, who 
were put to death for the name of Christ under Chosroes, 
King of the Persians.^ 

(113) Then you come to the place where the wood of 
the holy cross was cut ; a very beautiful church has been 
built there. The place is one mile distant from Jerusalem, 
and is called in Arabic Messalibe^ — that is, ' the mother 
of the cross.' 

(114) Then two miles on is the running stream where 
blessed Philip baptized the Ethiopian eunuch returning 
from Jerusalem. And there is an indulgence for seven 
years and seven Lenten seasons. 

(115) Then you come, one mile on, to the place where 
John the Baptist and Zacharias his father were born. A 
church is there, distant four miles from Jerusalem. And 

1 Matt, xxvii. 32 ; Luke xxiii. 26. 

2 See Theodericb, p. 56, for the story of this cave ; it is also alluded 
to by John of Wiirzburg (p. 49), and Fetellus (p. 42). 

3 The ' Convent of the Cross,' Deir el-Musallabe. Cf. Innom. ii. (p. 1 1) 



24 ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 

thither it was that Mary ' went into the hill country with 
haste/^ and saluted Elizabeth, and Elizabeth * spake out 
with a loud voice, and said, ' Blessed art thou among 
women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb. And 
whence is this to me, that the mother of my Lord should 
come to me ? For lo, as soon as the voice of thy saluta- 
tion sounded in mine ears, the babe leaped in my womb 
for joy.' Then blessed Mary said, * My soul doth magnify 
the Lord,' etc. And there Zacharias prophesied, saying, 
* Blessed be the Lord God,' etc. And there is an in- 
dulgence for seven years and seven Lenten seasons. 

(i i6) Then to the Fountain of Zacharias,^ which is distant 
about a bow-shot from the above-mentioned church. 

CONCERNING THE PILGRIMAGES OF BETHLEHEM AND 
HEBRON. 

(117) Two miles from Jerusalem, in the direction of 
Bethlehem, is a church^ on the spot where Elijah re- 
pented. 

(118) Then you come to a place on the road where the 
star appeared again to the wise men, it having disappeared 
while they were in the presence of Herod. 

(119) Then you come to the pit where his brethren put 
Joseph. 

(120) Then you come to the sepulchre of Rachel, Jacob's 
wife, who died after giving birth to Benjamin. It is distant 
about a furlong from the king's road. 

(121) Then you come to a field of vetches of stone, one 
mile distant from Bethlehem. For when the Lord Jesus 
was crossing it. He saw a man sowing vetches, and when 
the Lord asked him what he was sowing, he answered, 
' Stones.' * Let them then be stones,' said the Lord, and 

^ Luke i. 39, 42. 2 <^/^ Kdrim, 3 Mar Ely as. 



ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 25 

forthwith those vetches were turned into stones, and to 
this day vetches of stone are found there.i 

(122) Then you come to the city of Bethlehem, which 
is, being interpreted, the House of Bread, where was born 
the true Bread who came down from heaven. In this 
holy and venerable city a most beautiful church has been 
built in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary, in which is a 
chapel where Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the world, was born. 
And there is absolution from pain and guilt. (123) And 
there is the place where was the manger in which the 
ass and the ox fed, where the Blessed Virgin Mary laid 
Him, ' because there was no room in the inn.' The 
manger with the hay in which the infant Jesus was laid 
is said to be at Rome in the church of S. Maria Maggiore. 
(124) To that chapel came the three kings from the East — 
Melchior, Balthasar, and Jaspar — to worship the Son of 
God, and they presented to Him ' gold, frankincense, 
and myrrh.' (125) Also in the above-mentioned church 
of St. Mary, on the left side, is the place where were laid 
certain relics of our Lord's nativity and circumcision, 
which are said to be now at Rome in the church of St. 
John Lateran.2 (126) Also on the right side is the place 
where the Holy Innocents were buried, and there is an 
altar there. And there is absolution from pain and guilt. 

(127) Then you come to a door, and there is the crypt 
in which blessed Jerome did penance, and there he com- 
posed his Bible and many other books. 

(128) Then hard by you come to the church of that 

^ This legend is also given by Fabri, i. 545. It is sufficiently 
explained by the note there cited by the editor from Stanley's ' Sinai 
and Palestine': 'The stones called "Elijah's melons," on Mount 
Carmel, and " the Virgin Mary's peas," near Bethlehem, are instances 
of crystallization well known in limestone formations.' 

2 Cf. Marinus Sanutus, iii. 14, 11. 



26 ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 

noble matron, blessed Paula, with Eustochium her virgin 
daughter, where they did penance. 

(129) Then you come to the church of blessed Nicholas^ 
hard by, in which is a deep crypt. And in this is a chapel 
where it is said that the Blessed Virgin Mary once lived 
with her only Son. And it is said that there many a time 
she pressed out over the rock her breasts overflowing with 
milk, whence that rock has become white like milk, which 
is visible to this day.^ It is reported that if a woman, who 
from any cause has lost her milk, shall take a small piece 
of that rock and mix it with water, and drink in honour of 
the blessed Virgin, straightway her milk is restored. And 
there is an indulgence for seven years, etc. 

(130) Then you come to a chapel near Bethlehem, where 
the angel of the Lord appeared to the shepherds on the 
morning of the Lord^s nativity, saying, * I bring you good 
tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people, for there 
is born this day in Bethlehem, the city of David, the 
Saviour ofthe world.' 

(131) Twelve miles from Bethlehem is Hebron, a very 
ancient city, the metropolis of the Philistines, the dwelling- 
place of the giants, in the tribe of Judah. Hebron is 
situated in the Plain of Damascus, in that field where the 
Great Creator first fashioned our father Adam 'after His 
own image.^ In this city is a temple of wondrous beauty, 
in which is that Double Cave where were buried those four 
venerated men, viz., Adam, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob,^ with 
their wives. Eve, Sarah, Rebekah, and Leah. (132) Chris- 

^ This is probably Nicholas, Bishop of Myra in the time of Diocle- 
tian, who went on a pilgrimage to Palestine. His day is December 6. 

2 See Fabri, i. 564, and Marinus Sanutus, iii. 14, 11. There is also 
an apparent allusion to the ' Milk Grotto ' in the account of the Abbot 
Daniel (p. 41). 

3 For an interesting note on the origin of the tradition connecting 
Adam with Hebron, see Robinson's ' Biblical Researches,' ii. 89. 



ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 27 

tians do not enter that temple for fear of the Saracens. 
And there is absolution from pain and guilt. 

(133) Then near the city, about a bow-shot off, you 
arrive at a cave or crypt, in which Adam and his wife did 
penance for a hundred years after the death of their son 
Abel.i Then, being warned by an angel, he knew his wife, 
and she bare Seth, of whose tribe was born Jesus Christ 
the Son of God. 

(134) Also near Hebron is the mountain of Mamre, at 
the foot of which is a terebinth, and it is called either 
by the name of * oak * or * ilex.' It was sitting under this 
that Abraham saw the three angels coming to him, and 
worshipped one of them. (135) And this oak, although it 
is now dried up, yet is proved to be of medicinal efficacy. 
For it is said that if anyone riding by takes up a piece of 
it, his animal will not stumble.^ 

(136) Then you come to the place where blessed John 
the Baptist repented. 

(137) Also it was at Hebron that the twelve spies, Caleb, 
and Joshua, and their companions, came first into the Land 
of Promise. 

(138) Also in Hebron David reigned seven and a half 
years before he reigned in Jerusalem. 

(139) Two miles from Hebron, in the direction of Beth- 
lehem, there is a little hut where the prophet Jonah dwelt 
after he came from the city of Nineveh. And there he 
died, and was laid in a tomb.^ 

(140) Also, opposite Mount Sion, is a mountain on 
which now is the church of St. Cyprian. 

^ €/. John of Wiirzburg (p. 58), who calls the place the 'Vale of 
Tears.' 

2 Theoderich (p. 53), John of Wiirzburg (p. 59), and Fetellus (p. 9) 
all have this legend. See also Innotn. vi. (p. 38). 

3 The mosque oi Neby Yunus at Halhiil. 



28 ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 



CONCERNING THE TILGRIMAGES OF BETHANY AND 
THE RIVER JORDAN. 

(141) Bethany, the town of Mary, and Martha, and 
their brother Lazarus, is distant fifteen furlongs from 
Jerusalem, beyond the Mount of Olives ; and there 
formerly was the house of Simon the leper, in which the 
Lord Jesus sat at meat with His disciples ; where, also, the 
Magdalene came, hearing that Jesus had come thither, and 
standing behind ' began to wash His feet with tears, and to 
wipe them with her hair,'^ where, too, she deservedly heard 
that sweet and glorious word, ' Thy sins are forgiven thee ; 
go in peace.' (142) A great church used to be there, but 
it has been destroyed by the Saracens. 

(143) There, too, is the cave in which blessed Lazarus 
was buried when the Lord raised him from the dead ; a 
chapel is now there. And there is absolution from pain 
and guilt. 

(144) Then, two bow-shots off, you come to the place where 
Martha's house was, where afterwards a church was built. 
In this house our Lord sat at meat with His disciples, when 
Martha said to Him, 'Lord, dost Thou not care that my 
sister hath left me to serve alone ? Bid her therefore that 
she help me,' etc.^ 

(145) Then you come, two bow-shots off, to the stone at 
which Jesus rested when Mary and Martha met Him, 
weeping, and saying, * Lord, if thou hadst been here, our 
brother had not died,' etc.^ 

(146) Thence you shall go eighteen miles along a straight 
road to the river Jordan. 

(147) The river Jordan is formed under the mountains 
of Gilboa from two streams, the J or and the Dan, which 

^ Luke vii. 38, 48. ^ Luke x. 40. 3 John xi. 21. 



ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 29 

rise at the foot of Mount Lebanon, near Caesarea Philippi.^ 
Deriving its name and origin from these, it descends to the 
Lake of Gennesaret, and thence emerging in full stream it 
waters the adjacent region for nearly a hundred miles, and 
through the famous valley, called the Valley of Salt, it gets 
to the Dead Sea ; it does not appear again, but is swallowed 
up in the abyss. (148) Pilgrims and natives alike are 
accustomed to wash their persons and their clothes in the 
waters of Jordan with great devoutness, because it was 
in the river Jordan that our Redeemer was baptized by 
blessed John. (149) There the heavens were opened ; 
there the Holy Spirit appeared in the form of a dove ; 
there the Father's voice was heard, * This is My beloved 
Son, in whom I am well pleased.' 

(150) In this river Naaman the Syrian was cleansed from 
his leprosy, and ' his flesh came again like unto the flesh of 
a little child.' 

(151) Elijah and his disciple Elisha divided the waters of 
Jordan, struck with Elijah's mantle, into two parts, and 
crossed over dry-shod. And there is absolution from pain 
and guilt. 

(152) Then you come, one mile on, to an abbey,^ built in 
honour of blessed John the Baptist, and there is shown the 
left hand of the same St. John. (153) And there was the 
blessed abbot Zosimas, and there he lived out his life in g-reat 
penitence. He found blessed Mary of Egypt beyond the 
Jordan, who abode there for thirty-eight years, unknovvn 
by all. 

(154) Then you come to Jericho, which is distant four 
miles from the Jordan, formerly a great city, which was 
taken by Joshua, the leader of the people of Israel, when 
he entered the Land of Promise, at whose prayers the walls 

^ See John of Wurzburg, pp. 65, 66. 

2 The Monastery of St. John, Kusr el- Yehiid. 



30 ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 

of the city fell down. A native of it was Rahab, the harlot, 
who received the spies of Israel into her house, for which 
she and her whole house were saved. Another native was 
Zacchaeus, ' the chief among the publicans,' who desired to 
see Jesus as He came into Jericho, and ' could not for the 
press, because he was little in stature.'^ 

(155) Two miles from Jericho is Quarentena, an exceed- 
ing lofty and wondrous mountain, half-way up which is a 
very beautiful chapel on a rock which a certain Greek 
owns. And there is absolution from pain and guilt. 

(156) On that mountain Christ ' fasted forty days and 
forty nights, and afterwards was an hungered.' And there 
the devil tempted Him, first in His appetite, saying, * If 
Thou be the Son of God, command that these stones be 
made bread.' The second time he tempted Him on another 
mountain not far from this one, with avarice, when he 
showed Him all the kingdoms of the world, saying, 'All 
these will I give Thee, if Thou wilt fall down and 
worship me. The third time he tempted Him with vain- 
glory, when he * set Him on the pinnacle of the temple,' 
and said to Him, ' If Thou be the Son of God, cast Thyself 
down.' (157) And under Quarentena is the spring which 
the prophet Elisha turned from being bitter into sweet 
and drinkable water.^ 

(158) Two miles from Jericho, on the north-east side, is 
the Lake of Asphalt, which is also called the Dead Sea. 
And fitly is it called the Dead Sea, because it neither 
receives nor nourishes any living thing. Here those four 
cities of ill fame, Sodom, Gomorrah, Zeboiim, and Admah, 
persisting in their abominations, were burnt up with fire and 
brimstone, and submerged in the lake. 

(159) Above the Dead Sea is Zoar, also called Belcoro- 
sata, the fifth of the cities, which was saved by Lot's 

I Luke xix. 3. ^2 Kings ii. 22. 



ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 31 

prayers from being overwhelmed. It is now called by the 
people of the country the Town of the Palm. 

(160) Also above this Lake or Dead Sea, as you go 
down to Arabia, is Carnaiim,i a cave in the mountain of the 
Moabites, to which Balaam was led to curse the people 
of Israel, when he rode upon the ass which spoke to him. 

(161) This Dead Sea divides Judaea and Arabia. 
(162) Arabia, in the time of the children of Israel, was the 
desert in which God kept them forty years, raining down 
manna upon them for to eat. 

(163) Also in Arabia is the Valley of Moses, in which 
Moses twice struck the rock, which thereupon supplied two 
streams of water for the people of God, by which streams 
the whole country is now watered. 

(164) Also in Arabia is Mount Sinai, where the law was 
given to Moses on tables of stone, written by the finger of 
God. To the top of it the body of the blessed virgin 
Catherine was conveyed by angelic hands, being translated 
from Alexandria, where she received the palm of martyr- 
dom.2 

(165) Two miles from Jericho is Gilgal, where was born 
the prophet Elisha, the disciple of the prophet Elijah. 

(166) Also between Jericho and Jerusalem is the place 
where ' the blind man sat by the wayside begging,' who, 
hearing that * Jesus of Nazareth passeth by, cried, saying, 
Jesus, Thou son of David, have mercy on me. And 
Jesus said unto him, Receive thy sight; thy faith hath 
saved thee.'^ 

(167) Also from Jerusalem to Emmaus* it is sixty 

^ C/. Theoderich (p. 55), John of Wiirzburg (p. 60), and Fetellus 
(p. 21). It has been suggested that Kerak is the place referred to. 

2 This legend about St. Catherine is of late growth ; it is given fully 
by Simeon Metaphrastes in the tenth century. 

3 Luke xviii. 35, ff. 

4 ^Amwas^ Emmaus-Nicopolis. 



32 ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 

furlongs. There Jesus appeared to the two disciples going 
to Emmaus, and when He had opened the Scriptures, He 
said, * O fools, and slow of heart to believe '; and * they knew 
Him in the breaking of bread.' This town is near Modin, 
the city of the Maccabees^ and the city of the Gibeonites. 

(i68) Thence you shall go forty miles to Gaza,^ near the 
sea, one of the five cities of the Philistines, whose gates 
Samson * carried to the top of an hill.'^ The road goes on 
towards the west. 

(169) Then you come, five miles, to the village of 
Caromus.* They make very good wine there. And there 
the cinctured Christians live. There used to be here a 
great hostel of St. John of Jerusalem, but it has been 
utterly destroyed by the Saracens. 

(170) Then six days' journey on you come to a place 
where is a certain fountain, called the Fountain of Blessed 
Mary. For Joseph, being warned in a dream by the 
angel that he should take the boy and his mother and 
fly into Egypt, they came to this place. And the blessed 
Virgin was not able to proceed further for the intolerable 
thirst from which she suffered ; and, having nothing to 
drink, for her grievous pain she laid the Infant down on the 
ground ; and He striking the earth with a very gentle 
blow of His foot, forthwith delicious water bubbled forth. 
And she drank and was strengthened. This fountain waters 
the balsam gardens to this day, and the place is called La 
Materye.^ Saracens and Christians alike bathe there. 

^ Cf. I Mace. ii. i, etc. 

2 Called Gazara in the MS. See Robinson's * Biblical Researches, 
ii. 43. 

3 Judges xvi. 3. 

*> This is the reading of the MS., but the place meant is probably 
Bab-ed-Daron. It was a celebrated fortress in Crusading times. See 
Robinson's ' Biblical Researches,' ii. 38. 

5 Or Matarea, as the place is called in the 'Arabic Gospel of the 
Infancy,' whence the legend is derived. 



ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 33 

(171) Then five miles on you come to that illustrious, 
and noble, and wealthy city called La Kaer/ in which, 
being as it were his principal town, dwells the great 
Sultan, the king and lord of all Syria, Egypt, and Arabia. 
Near this flows the river which, coming from Paradise, 
waters all the land of Egypt. 

(172) Then, a mile further, you come to the city called 
Babilonia,^ whence came that Daniel who was cast into the 
den of lions. And there in one place blessed Mary dwelt. 
In which place is now a church called St. Mary de la 
Scala. There is also there another secret place in which 
blessed Mary dwelt, and it is called St. Mary de la Cava. 
And there is a very beautiful church ; there, too, rests the 
body of blessed Barbara the virgin.^ 

(173) Opposite La Kaer, on the other side of the river 
westward, are the granaries of Pharaoh, once King of 
Egypt, which were made by the advice of Joseph, the son 
of Jacob, who was sold into Egypt. 

(174) Then after two hundred miles you come to 
Alexandria, where blessed Catherine was martyred, whose 
body was conveyed by the hands of holy angels to Mount 
Sinai for burial ; and her palace is still to be seen in 
Alexandria, in which no Saracen can by any means 
dwell. 

(175) Also two miles to the east of Alexandria is a 
church where St. Mark the Evangelist was martyred. 
When he was celebrating Mass one day, unbelievers came 
and put a rope round his neck, saying, ' Lead away the 
stag to the place for stags';* his body afterwards was 

I Cairo. ^ old Cairo. 

3 According to one story, Barbara was martyred at Heliopolis under 
Galerius in 306 ; according to another, at Nicomedia in 235. Her day 
is December 4. 

4 This story is printed in several forms in the Ac^a Sanctorum for 
April 25. The reading of the MS. is Traite bubalum ad loca biibali, 

3 



34 ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 

secretly brought to Venice, where now, being translated 
thither, he rests gloriously. 

(176) Then two days' journey farther is Damiata, the 
city where blessed Jeremiah the prophet died by stoning. 

(177) Then you come to Jaffa, the common harbour of 
Christians. 

(178) Then ten miles on is Rama,^ of which it is said, 
* In Rama was there a voice heard, weeping and great 
mourning, Rachel weeping for her children, and would not 
be comforted because they are not.'^ 

(179) Then one mile on is Lydda, where blessed George 
was martyred.^ In this Lydda blessed Peter healed a 
certain lame man by name Eneas. 

(180) Then you come to the Palestinian Caesarea, whence 
came Cornelius the centurion, whom blessed Peter bap- 
tized. From this Caesarea came also blessed Philip, one 
of the seven deacons chosen by the Apostles. 

(181) Then you come to Assur, formerly called Anti- 
patris, which was once situated on the sea between 
Caesarea and Jaffa.* 

(182) Also seven miles from Caesarea is Pilgrim's Fort, 
formerly called Petra Incisa,^ once a famous fort on the sea 
coast. The body of blessed Euphemia, virgin and martyr, 
of Chalcedon, a city of Greece, having been miraculously 
translated thither, is held in great veneration to this day. 

but an earlier form is Trahebant eum ad loca Buculi^ quae erant 
iuxta mare sub rupibus. The legend in the text is developed out of 
this. 

' Ramleh. 2 Matt. ii. 18. 

3 A famous church was built here in honour of St. George by 
Justinian, but the scene of his martyrdom is generally supposed to 
have been in Nicomedia. The legend of St. George in its fully 
developed form seems to have been known to the author of this guide- 
book. See § 216. 

4 Cf. Robinson's * Biblical Researches,' ii. 242. s Athlit. 



ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 35 

. (183) Then you come to Acre, once a famous city, 
formerly called Ptolemais, distant eight miles from Caiphas. 
Caiphas^ under Mount Carmel is the chief house of the 
Carmelites. As you go down the mountain you come to 
the place where once was the home of the prophet 
Elijah. 

(184) Three miles from Mount Carmel is Mount Cain,^ 
at the foot of which Lamech slew Cain with an arrow, in 
the thicket mistaking him for a stag.^ 

CONCERNING THE PILGRIMAGES OF TIBERIAS AND THE 
ADJACENT PLACES. 

(185) The city of Tiberias, named after Tiberius Caesar, 
is situated on the Sea of Galilee. In His youth Jesus used 
to visit it. (186) It fell out there once that the boy Jesus 
was delaying, being with a Jew, who was related to Him. 
And the Jew, being angry, snatched up a burning torch and 
flung it at the boy Jesus, desiring to hit Him. But the 
torch stuck in the ground and grew into an immense tree, 
which to this day bears flowers and fruit. 

(187) Also near that city are ever-flowing hot springs. 

(188) Also a mile from Tiberias is the town of Magdala, 
from which Mary Magdalene receives her name. 

(189) Four miles from Tiberias is Bethulia,^ the city of 
Judith, who slew Holofernes.^ 

(190) The Sea of Galilee is a lake on the borders of 
Galilee of very sweet and delicious water, of great extent 
in both length and breadth. Near it is the city of Peter 
and Andrew, Bethsaida by name, upon which the Lord 
shed lustre by His presence. (191) The lake is sometimes 
called Gennesaret, because it generates a breeze {general 

^ Haifa. Cf. Fabri, i. 210. ^ Kaimiln, 

3 This is the common Jewish legend based on Gen. iv. 23, 24. 

4 See John of Wiirzburg, p. 69, note. ^ Judith xiii. 10. 



36 ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 

auram) and gathers a strong wind, by which, the waters 
being disturbed and a storm arising, boats are often sunk. . 
(192) It was on this lake that the Lord walked dryshod, / 
when He said to Peter, wishing to come to Him and^ 
sinking as he cried, * Lord, save me,' — ' O thou of little faith, " 
wherefore didst thou doubt ?' And another time also the 
disciples being in peril, He calmed the waters of this sea. 
At the left head of the sea, in the hollow of the mountain, 
is Gennesaret, the place that generates the breeze ; it is 
still felt by those on the spot. 

(193) The Sea of Galilee begins between Bethsaida and 
Capernaum. 

(194) Four miles from Bethsaida is Chorazin, in which 
Antichrist, the world's seducer, is to be nurtured. It was 
of these two cities that Jesus said, ' Woe to thee, Beth- 
saida ! woe to thee, Chorazin !' 

(195) Five miles from Chorazin is Kedar, a very excellent 
city, of which, it is written in the psalm, ' I dwelt in the 
tents of Kedar.'^ 

(196) Capernaum, the city of the centurion, is situated 
on the right bank of the lake's head ; in this city Jesus 
wrought many signs. 

(197) Two miles from Capernaum as you go down the 
mountain is the place where the Lord preached to the 
multitude, and instructed His Apostles, teaching them j 
where also He cured the leper. 

(198) Two miles from that descent is the place where 
Jesus fed five thousand men with five loaves and two fishes, 
twelve baskets of fragments being left ; wherein that place 
is called Mensa, that is, the Place of Refreshment. Also 
He did many miracles upon people with various in- 
firmities. 

(199) Near that place Jesus showed Himself to His 

^ Ps. cxx. 5. 



ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 37 

disciples after His resurrection, eating * a piece of a 
broiled fish and of an honeycomb,' according to John.^ 

(200) In the upper parts of this Galilee were the twenty 
cities which King Solomon gave to his friend Hiram, 
King of Tyre.2 

(201) This region, 'Galilee of the Gentiles,* is altogether 
in the tribes of Zabulon and Naphthali. 

CONCERNING THE PILGRIMAGES OF DAMASCUS AND ITS 

BORDERS. 

(202) The boundaries of Arabia and Idumaea meet at 
Bozrah. Idumaea is the land of Damascus. Eliezer, 
Abraham's servant, built Damascus, as some say ; but 
others say that it was built by a man called Damascus in 
the field^ in which Cain slew his brother Abel. Esau 
inhabited Damascus. He is also called Seir and Edom : 
Seir, that is, hairy ; and Edom, red, whence the land gets 
the name Idumaea. And part of that land is called Uz, 
whence was blessed Job, who was found constant and per- 
fect amid his temptations. In Idumaea is Mount Seir, 
under which lies Damascus. 

(203) Eight miles from Damascus, on the road leading 
to Sardinaya,* is the place where the Lord Jesus appeared 
to Saul, saying, * Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou Me ? 
It is hard for thee to kick against the pricks.'^ 

(204) Also in Damascus there is a church where Ananias 
on a set day in the baptismal font made Saul into Paul, 
a wolf into a lamb. There the cinctured Christians 
minister. 

^ The reference appears to be to John xxl. 9, but the quotation is 
from Luke xxiv. 42. 

2 I Kings ix. 11. 

3 Or * in the year,' for some MSS. have anno for agro. 

4 Apparently Ddreya. 

5 Acts ix. 4. 



38 ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 

(205) Also in the same city is a great cavern in which 
there is said to be infinite treasure ; and if anyone puts 
forth his hand to take any part of this treasure, forthwith 
fire bursts forth and destroys whatever he has touched. 
And it is said that when the Greeks held this city, by the 
conquest of the Emperor Constantine, the son of St. 
Helena, and when they saw that they could no longer 
keep the city or country by reason of the multitude of 
Saracens coming upon them, they laid their treasures in 
this cave, and by the art of necromancy they made their 
treasures impossible to be removed to the end of time. 

(206) Ten miles from Damascus is the city of Sardinaya, 
in which is the venerated image of the glorious Virgin 
Mary, which was brought from Jerusalem. This blessed 
image was entirely converted into a fleshly substance, so 
that it ceases not night and day to emit a sacred oil, which 
the pilgrims who come there from every quarter carry 
away in little glass jars. No Saracen can live in this city ; 
they always die within a year. 

(207) At the foot of Lebanon eastward there arise the 
two famous rivers. Abana^ unites itself with the Great 
Sea in those coasts, whither Eustace, having lost his wife 
and being abandoned by his children, retired alone. 

Pharpar^ goes through Syria to Antioch, flowing past its 
walls ; and ten miles from Antioch it enters the sea at the 
harbour of St. Symeon. 

(208) At Antioch the precious virgin Margaret was 
crowned with a glorious martyrdom under the prefect 
Olibrius.^ At Antioch blessed Peter had his seat for seven 
years, decorated with the pontifical robes.* 

* The Litany. C/. Innom. vi. (p. 51). ^ The Orontes. 

3 The date of her martyrdom is generally given as 258 A.D. She 
is hardly to be distinguished from the St. Marina of the Greek Church. 

4 This ecclesiastical tradition, which is as old as Jerome, probably 
took its rise from Gal. ii. ii. 



ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 39 

(209) The origin of Tyre is buried in obscurity. Before 
Tyre is a marble stone of no small size, upon which Jesus 
stood when He said, ' Yea rather, blessed are they that 
hear the word of God,'^ etc. 

(210) Eight miles north of Tyre on the sea is Sarfe,^ 
called Sarepta, of the Sidonians, where once Elijah the 
prophet dwelt when he raised from the dead the son of the 
widow woman. 

(211) Six miles from Sarfe is the famous city of Sidon, 
outside the walls of which the Lord healed the girl that 
was vexed with a devil, whose mother said to Jesus, 
* Truth, Lord : yet the dogs eat of the crumbs which fall 
from their master's table,'^ etc. Of this city was Queen 
Dido, who founded Carthage in Africa. 

(212) At the foot of Lebanon, two miles from Tyre, is a 
well of spring water. But the Fountain of the Gardens is 
six miles from the city of Tripolis, at the foot of Lebanon, 
towards the west. Tripolis is a very illustrious city of 
Syria, full of many delights, situated on the sea. 

(213) Twenty-four miles from Tripolis is the city of 
Antiranda, commonly called Tortosa. In this city there 
is a chapel of a larger church, said to have been built by 
Peter and John, Apostles of God, in honour of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary ; it is held in great veneration to this day. 
There many benefits are offered by the intercession of the 
glorious Virgin. 

(214) Six miles from Sidon is Berytus, a very wealthy 
city, in which an image of our Saviour, not long after His 
Passion, was crucified by the Jews in imitation of Him. 
And it poured forth blood and water, whereupon those 
who had crucified it, when they saw the miracle, believed. 
Whosoever had perfect ^devotion to this image was healed 

' Luke xi. 28. ^ Surafend. 

3 Man. XV. 27. 



40 ACCOUNT OF THE HOLY LAND 

from any infirmity with which he was afflicted.^ It was 
afterwards carried to Rome, (215) and placed in the church 
of St. John Lateran, where it is most devoutly reverenced 
by all Christian people. 

(216) One mile from Berytus is the place where St. 
George, by virtue of the holy cross, slew the dragon, and 
rescued a virgin from a shameful death, and restored her 
safe and well to her father, the king of that country. 

I This story of the image of Berytus (Beyrout) is the subject of a 
sermon printed (Migne P.G. xxviii. 797) among the spurious writings 
of Athanasius. It was read at the Second Nicene Council, and 
received as a genuine work. See Theoderich, p. 71, and John of 
Wiirzburg, p. 63. 



INDEX. 



Abana, 38 

Abbey of St. John the Baptist, 29 

Aceldama, 14 

Acre (Ptolemais), 35 

Admah, 30 

^lia, ^lius, 4 

Alexandria, 33 

Altar of red stone, 12 

Antipatris, 34 

Antiranda (Tortosa), 39 

Apostles' dwellings, 14 

Arabia, 31, yj 

Ark of the Lord, 19 

Assur, 34 

B 

Babilonia, City, 33 

Belcorosata, 30 

Berytus, 39 

Bethany, 16, 28 

Bethel, 4 

Bethlehem, City of, 25 

Bethphage, 16 

Bethsaida, 35, 36 

Bethulia, 35 

Bozrah, 37 

Brook Kedron, 18 

Burial of the Virgin Mary, 13 



Cassarea Philippi, 29 
Caiaphas, House of, 11 
Caiphas, 35 
Cana of Galilee, 2 
Capernaum, 36 
Carnaiim, 31 



Caromus, 32 

Cave of Adam near Hebron, 27 

in which Lazarus was 

buried, 28 
Cell where Mary lodged, 11 
Centre of the world, 8 
Chapel of Pelagia of Antioch, 15 

of St. John the Baptist, 9 

of St. John the Evangelist, 

9, II 

of St. Mary Magdalen, 10 

of the Shepherds, 26 

• with twenty-eight steps, 7 

with twelve steps, 8 

of the Virgin Mary, 6, 9 

Chorazin, 36 

Christ's bedchamber, 21 

Church of the Ascension, 15 

of the Cock-crowing, 14 

of Elijah, 24 

of the Holy Sepulchre, 9 

in which Jesus taught the 

Apostles, 16 

of Messalibe, 23 

and tomb of the Virgin Mary, 

18 
of the Virgin Mary at Beth- 
lehem, 25 

of St. Anna, 21 

of St. Cyprian, 27 

of St. James, 10 

of St. John Lateran, 40 

of St. Mark, 33 

of St. Mary de la Scaln, ■}^'}, 

of St. Mary of Sorrows, 22 

of St. Nicholas, 26 

of St. Saviour, 10 

Crypt of St. Jerome, 25 



INDEX. 



D 
Damascus, 37 
Damiata, City, 34 
David, City of, 5 
Dead Sea, 30 
Double Cave at Hebron, 26 



Elijah and Elisha, 29 
, Home of, 35 



Field of Peas, 24 

Fountain of the Gardens, 39 

at Nazareth, 2 

Sion, 4 

of Sophirus, 2 

of the Virgin Mary, 14, 32 

of Zachanas, 24 



Galilee of the Gentiles, ^y 
Garden of Geihsemane, 17 
Gate of David, 23 

of St. Stephen, 23 

Gaza, 32 

Gilgal, 31 

Golden Gates, 19, 21 

Golgotha, 5, 8 

Gomorrah, 30 

Granaries of Pharaoh, 33 

H 

Hadrian, The Emperor, 6 
Hebron, 26 

Vale of, 4 

Hierosolima, 4 
Holy Cross, Place of, 6 
Holy Sepulchre, 5 
Hot springs, 35 
House of Anna?, 22 

of Pilate, 22 

of Martha, 28 

of the rich man, 22 

of Simon the Leper, 28 

Hut of the prophet Jonah, 27 

I 
Idumsea, 37 
Isaiah the prophet, 14 



J 

Jacob's Well, 3 

Jaffa, 34 

Jebus, Salem, Jerusalem, Hieroso- 
lima, Solima, Luz, Bethel, ^lia, 
vElius, 4 

Jericho, 29 

Jerusalem, 4 

Jordan River, 28 

Joseph of Arimathea, 23 

Judaea, 31 

,4 



K 



Kedar, 36 



La Kaer, 33 

Lake of Asphalt, 30 

of Gennesaret, 29 

Land of Promise, 29 
Lions' Cave, 23 
Luz, 4 
Lydda, 34 

M 

Macheron, Town of, 3 

Magdala, 35 

Manger, The, 25 

Marble pillar, 2 

pillar near where Jesus was 

crowned with thorns, 8 
stone in the Church of the 

Holy Sepulchre, 5 
Modin, 32 

Moloch, The idol, 16 
Mount Calvary, 5, 8, 9, 23 

Endor, 3 

Moriah, 19 

of Offence, 16 

Olivet, 5, 15 

Seir, 37 

Sinai, 31 

Sion, 4, 5, 10 

Tabor, 2 



N 

Naaman the Syrian, 29 
Nain, City of, 3 
Nazareth, City of, i 
Neapolis, City of, 3 



INDEX. 



43 



Oak of Mamre, 27 

of Rogel, 14 

Oratory of the Virgin Mary, 12 



Palace of King Herod, 22 

Palestinian Cassarea, 34 

Pavement, The, 8 

Pharpar, 38 

Pilgrims wash in the Jordan, 29 

Pilgrims' Fort (Petra Incisa), 34 

Pillar to which Jesus was bound, 6 

Pit of Joseph, 24 

Place where Stephen was bound 

and stoned, 18 

where the star appeared, 24 

where St. George slew the 

Dragon, 40 

where the Cross lay, 8 

where the Lord appeared 

first to Mary Magdalen, 6 

of the Apostles, 11 

where the Lord supped with 

His Disciples, 12 

where the Apostles abode, 12 

where Jesus appeared to His 

Disciples, 12 
where the water was warmed, 

13 
where James the Less lived 

and was buried, 15 
where the Apostles composed 

the Symbol of Faith, 16 

called Galilee, 16 

where the Virgin received a 

palm from the Angel, 16 
where the Virgin Mary threw 

her girdle, 17 

where Jesus prayed, 17 

where the blind man sat, 31 

where Jesus was taken cap- 
tive by the Jews, 17 
where Christ was imprisoned, 

7 
where John the Baptist was 

born, 23 
Plain of Damascus, 26 
Pool of Siloam, 14 

by the Sheep Market, 21 

Precipice, The, 2 



' Quarentena, 30 



R 



Rama, 34 

Relics of the Lord's Nativity, 25 

Rock, The, 19 

on which the Lord rested, 

10 



St. Abraham, City of, 4 

Catharine, 31 

Pantaleon, 8 

Symeon, 38 

Salem, 4 

Sardinaya, ^7, 38 

Sarfe, 39 

Sasron, 2 

School of the Virgin Mary, 22 

Sea of Galilee, 35, 36 

Sebaste, 3 

Sepulchre of Rachel, 24 

of St. Simeon, 21 

of King David and Solonion, 

13 

of St. Stephen, 13 

Sidon, City of, 39 

Sodom, 30 

Solima, 4 

Solomon's Temple, 21 

Sophirus, City of, 2 

Spring of Elisha, 30 

Stone on which Jesus stood when 
He preached to the multi- 
tude, 13 

which Jesus grasped, 18 

to which Jesus was chained, 

7 . 
chair on which St. Helena 

sat, 7 
on which Jesus rested when 

Mary and Martha met Him, 

28 
on Olivet upon which Jesus 

stood and preached to the 

multitude, 17 

pillars. The four, 7 

Stream where Philip baptized the 

Eunuch, 23 
Sycamore-tree on which Judas 
hanged himself, 23 



44 



INDEX. 



Temple of the Lord, 19 
Threshing-floor of Oman, 19 
Tiberias, City, 35 
Tower of David, 23 
Town of the Palm, 31 
Tripolis, City, 39 
Tyre, 39 



U 



Uz, Land of, ^y 



Valley of Jehoshaphar, 16, i^ 

of Moses, 31 

of Salt, 29 

W 

Window in the wall, 7 
Wood of the Holy Cross, 23 



Zeboiim, 30 
Zoar, 30 



THE END. 



ISILLINt; AND SONS. PRINTERS, GUILDFORD. 



Palestine pilgrims' ^ext goeietg 



JOHN POLONER'S DESCRIPTION 



OF THE 

HOLY LAND 

(Circa 142 i A.D.) 



^ran^lateb torn Nobler 'e text 
By AUBREY STEWART, M.A. 




LONDON : 

24, HANOVER SQUARE, W 

1894. 



PREFACE. 



* Fortunately,' says Dr. Tobler, ' we know the name of 
the writer of this work.' He proceeds to argue that 
Poloner was a German, albeit Count P. Riant claims him 
as a Pole. The evidence on which Dr. Tobler founds his 
theory consists of his use of the German word .Klaftern (p. 1 1), 
his reckoning by German miles, with the explanation to his 
reader of how many Italian miles go to one German, and 
also his statement that Palestine was a province of the 
Holy Land, 'just as Saxony and Lorraine are provinces of 
Germany, or as Tuscany and Lombardy are provinces of 
Italy.' 

We also know the date of his pilgrimage, for he himself 
tells us of the terrible night which he passed in the harbour 
at Beyrout on St. Thomas's eve, 1422. He also tells us 
of how the Saracens were harvesting on the Mount of 
Olives on St. George's day (April 23), 142 1, so that pro- 
bably it was on his way home that he went to Beyrout. 
His description agrees in substance, often in exact words, 
with that of Burcardus de Monte Sion, although it differs 
in arrangement. I have noted the continual coincidences 



PREFACE. 



between the holy places shown to Poloner, and those shown 
to Fabri. Often these places are described in exactly the 
same words, so that one does not know whether Fabri 
copied his predecessor, or whether they both merely wrote 
down the stereotyped story told by the guardians and 
vergers. 

Much of the interest of Poloner lies in the fact that he 
is, as far as we know, almost the first pilgrim who made a 
map of the Holy Land. Although this map has unhappily 
perished, yet from the allusions to it in the text, and the 
map published by Marino Sanudo, Dr. Tobler has been 
able to reconstruct it pretty satisfactorily. The arrange- 
ment of the map is not very easy to understand at first. 
It is divided by lines like those of latitude and longitude 
on modern maps ; but those corresponding to latitude 
across the width of the map are eighty-three, crossed by 
twenty-eight lengthways. This arrangement of squares, 
Dr. Tobler tells us, was also used by Maurice of Paris, 
whose map has also been lost. Poloner reckons by the 
intervals between the lines, not by the lines themselves. 
These intervals he calls ' squares ' in latitude, and spaces 
in longitude ; that is to say, the reader, on finding that a 
place lies 'beneath' such and such a 'square,' is expected 
to count the squares along the longer edge of the map, 
until he comes to the one mentioned, and then by looking 
down the column from thence he will find the place. If a 
place be mentioned as being ' in' such and such a ' space,' he 
must count the squares along the end of the map, and look 



PREFACE. 



along the line. It is hard to explain this system without a 
diagram ; but perhaps this would be superfluous, seeing 
that our author is quite intelligible with the aid of a modern 
map. Maurice of Paris, Dr. Tobler tells us, also made a 
map in this fashion ; but this also has been lost. 

It is difficult to believe that we have here the whole of 
Poloner's peregrinale. It is hardly possible that so careful 
and devout a writer described his pilgrimage to the Holy 
Land, and yet that he should have given no description of 
the church of the Holy Sepulchre, the prime object of his 
journey. Moreover, the beginning of the book reads like 
a fragment. Yet it is not clear in what place this descrip- 
tion of the Holy Sepulchre is missing from the existing 
text, unless we may suppose that it had a separate chapter 
devoted to it. He does not give us any new facts con- 
nected with ancient geography, and we must content 
ourselves with gleaning from him some considerable in- 
formation about the position of churches and chapels in 
the Holy Land and Jerusalem. Towards the end he 
repeats himself, and gives the familiar list of names which 
we find in all the writers of pilgrimages, who make use 
of 'the Old Compendium.' Compare the prefaces to 
Theoderich and Fetellus in this series. Thus, although 
Poloner visited the Holy Land at a much later date than 
those writers, he nevertheless imitates their form pretty 
closely, and copies the same farrago of half-understood 
geography from the same or some similar source. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

OF THE GATES OF THE CITY OF JERUSALEM - - - I 

THE ORDER OF PILGRIMAGE THROUGHOUT THE CITY OF JERU- 
SALEM AND OTHER PLACES ROUND ABOUT THE SAME - 4 

THE PILGRIMAGE FROM THE CITY OF JERUSALEM TO THE 

EASTWARD TO BETHANY - - - - - - 16 

THE PILGRIMAGE FROM JERUSALEM TO BETHLEHEM - - 18 

THE PILGRIMAGE FROM BETHLEHEM TO THE VALLEY OF HEBRON 21 

THE PILGRIMAGE FROM HEBRON TO JERUSALEM - - 22 

THE DIVISIONS OF THE HOLY LAND - - - -23 

OF THE CITIES AND PLACES IN THE HOLY LAND - - 30 

OF THE LAND OF EGYPT - - - - - - 41 

INDEX - - - - - - - - 45 



JOHN POLONER'S DESCRIPTION OF 
THE HOLY LAND. 



y>«ic 



Of the Gates of the City of Jerusalem. 

Next follows the description of the gates which were in the 
wall of the city of Jerusalem, and which are mentioned in the 
text of Holy Scripture. The first was called David's Gate, 
and it is the upper gate of the city on the western corner. 
It was so called because the Tower of David overhung it. It 
was also called the Fish Gate, because through it led the 
road from Joppa and Diospolis and the sea-coast. Through 
it also came merchants, bringing divers stuffs from Ethiopia 
and Egypt. This gate stood in the ancient wall, and at this 
day it adjoins the wall of that part which was built on 
in order to enclose the Lord's sepulchre. From this gate 
the road led in three different ways : one across the 
fuller's field ; one, which was the left-hand one, led to 
Bethlehem and Hebron ; and another went down to the 
right hand, through the vale of Rephaim, beneath the castle 
of Bethsura, which is five stadia distant from Jerusalem. 
The second was called the Old Gate, and was to the north 
of the other in the old wall, and had stood since the days 
of the Jebusites. It was likewise called the Gate of Judg- 

I 



JOHN PO LONERS DESCRIPTION OF 



ment, because courts of justice were held thereat, and what- 
soever was decreed by sentence of the judges was there 
ordered to be carried out. Not far without this gate the 
Lord was crucified. The third is the Gate of Ephraim, in 
the upper part (of the city) towards the north. Through 
this a road led to Mount Ephraim and Samaria. Hither 
came the wall which was built from the Tower of David up 
to this gate in order to enclose the Lord's sepulchre to- 
gether with the old wall. This is now called St. Stephen's 
Gate, because without it he was stoned. The fourth gate 
was the Gate of the Corner, and was at the top on the 
eastern side at the corner of the wall above the brook 
Cedron, wherefore we read in the Book of Kings^ that 
Joash, King of Israel, brake down the wall of Jerusalem 
from the Gate of Ephraim even to the Gate of the Corner, 
four hundred cubits. It was also called the Gate of Ben- 
jamin, because this gate led to Anathoth and the other 
cities of that tribe. The fifth gate was the Dung Gate. 
Through this gate, in time of rain, all the filth of the city 
ran down into the brook Cedron. The road through this 
gate led into the wilderness which is between Jerusalem 
and Jericho, which is now called the wilderness of Quaran- 
tana. The sixth was the Valley Gate, and was called the 
Gate of the Flock, because through it were driven in the 
flocks of sheep to be sacrificed in the Temple, adjoining 
which, and as it were dependent upon it, was the §heep- 
pool wherein the victims were washed. Adjoining this gate 
was the Tower of Hananeel, also called the Tower of 
Clouds,^ as in the text : * (Behold, the days come, saith the 

1 2 Kings xiv. 12 ; 2 Chron. xxv. 23. 

^ ' Here Poloner alludes to a tower near what is now called St. 
Stephen's Gate.' — Tobler. 'Probably,' Tobler continues, ^ Ncbulosa 
is a corruption of Naplosa, Neapolosa—\S\^ gate leading to Nablus 
(Shechem).' 



The holy land. 



Lord, that) the city shall be built to the Lord from the 

tower of Hananeel unto the gate of the corner,'^ which is 

the Gate of Benjamin. Herod the Great set up this tower 

and called it Antonia, in honour of one Antonius. This 

gate leads to the Mount of Olives, Bethany, and the Jordan. 

The seventh gate is the Golden Gate. This did not lead 

directly into the city, but into the Temple by a short-cut 

from the Mount of Olives over an arch^ standing in the 

Valley of Jehoshaphat. The eighth is the Water Gate, so 

called because through it water was carried from the Pool 

of Siloam. This stood in the corner where Mount Sion 

and Mount Moriah, or the Mount of Grass,^ meet at the 

corner of the two walls, to wit, the wall of Mount Sion, and 

the wall which enclosed the king's house. (This gate) led 

to the fountain of Siloam, the Valley of the Children of 

Ennon, the fountain Rogel, and the field Acheldamach. I 

do not believe that the city had more gates than these, 

because, from its position, no more than these were 

needed. Among these gates three are more famous 

than the rest, being the first, the third, and the fourth of 

the eight above-mentioned. On the south and the north 

the brow of Mount Sion overhangs the city, and that part 

of the walls, with the towers, is well known to have no 

gates. 

Lo, here is the city of the Great King, whose likeness 
all the Churches of the world are not able to present. 
Round about its walls there once stood eighty-three 
towers and seven fenced castles, whose ruins may be 
seen at this day most clearly on the north side. Here 
followeth 

^ Jer. xxxi. 38. ^ Fabri, i. 463. 

^ Instead of Mo7is Herba?'tiin, Tobler ingeniously proposes to read 
Mons Abraham. Compare page 38. 



JOHN POLONERS DESCRIPTION OF 



The Order of Pilgrimage throughout the City 
OF Jerusalem and other Places round about 
the Same. 

In the churchyard, outside the Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre, there are four chapels. The first on the left 
hand, as one comes out, is the chapel of the Blessed Virgin 
and St. John the Evangelist, for this is where they stood 
at the time of the crucifixion. The second is that nearest 
to this one, built in the corner, and dedicated to All Angels. 
The third on the same side is that of St. John the Baptist. 
The fourth chapel on the right-hand side as one comes out 
of the church, near the belfry tower, is that of St. Mary 
Magdalen. The first chapel belongs to the Indians, the 
second to the Jacobites, the third to the Georgians, and the 
fourth to the Greeks. Midway between these four chapels, 
eleven paces from the ascent^ to Calvary, there is a place 
marked in the pavement where the Lord Jesus, when He 
was brought from the house of Pilate, rested with His 
cross, while the guard stood round about Him. Near the 
open space before the church is the prison for evil-doers, 
whose door looks towards the door of the church, at a dis- 
tance of twenty-two paces. From thence one goes east- 
ward through the streets of the city to the judgment-hall of 
Pilate. And it should be noted that from the place of 
Calvary to the aforesaid judgment-hall is four hundred and 
fifty paces, which I counted with the greatest care that I 
could ; for it is two hundred and seventy-five paces to the 
house of the rich man who would not give the crumbs to 
Lazarus when he was sick. Thence to the left, forty-five 
paces further, is the place where three streets meet together 
not far from the gate which leads to Samaria, Capernaum, 

^ Gradus. I imagine that the external staircase is meant. 



THE HOLY LAND. 



and Gamala.^ At this same place Simon of Cyrene was 
compelled to bear Christ's cross. At this same place the 
Lord said to the weeping women : * Daughters of Jerusalem, 
weep not for Me/ etc. Forty paces further to the right, 
nearer the road, is the place where the Blessed Virgin 
stood, desiring to behold her beloved Son, who was being 
brought with a great crowd from the house of Pilate, over- 
weighted with the burden of the cross, going to be crucified. 
When she saw Him spat upon and covered with blood, for- 
getting all her former consolations, she went distraught, 
fell down half dead, and so lay till she was lifted up and 
carried away by the other women. In this same place a 
church was built in her honour, which has been destroyed 
by the traitorous Saracens. Its ruins may be seen at this 
day, and it was called St. Mary of the Swoon.^ Fifty-six 
paces further one sees a vaulted arch crossing the street ; 
this is the Place of the Pavement, called Gabbatha.^ 
Above it may be seen two white stones, whereon the Lord 
Jesus stood in Pilate's court, when He answered that judge's 
questions there. There is the place where the standard of 
the soldiers was fastened. Beneath the aforesaid arch is 
shown the place of the school* of the Blessed Virgin, where 
in her childhood she was taught to write. Twenty-five 
paces from this arch is the judgment-halP where Christ was 
scourged and judged ; there is the door by which He went 
in, and another door by which He came out after sentence 
had been passed upon Him. Both of these doors are 
closed and walled up with stone, the old foundations still 
standing. This house^ is adorned with mosaic and carvings 
in the form of wheels or astrolabes, which carvings cannot 

1 See Fetellus, p. 4, in this series. 

2 Fabri, i. 447. 3 Pabri, i. 448. 

* Fabri, i. 453. ^ Fabri, i. 449. 

* Domus cujusdain. That the judgment-hall is meant is clear from 
Fabri, i. 450, in this series. 



.6 JOHN POLONERS DESCRIPTION OF 

be completely seen. A little way behind the judgment- 
hall is the house of Herod,^ but in front of the judgment- 
hall there stands a house which at this day is the court- 
house of the judge of the city. 

Eighty-three paces further along the same street to the 
eastward of the aforesaid judgment-hall, on the right- 
hand side, is the first gate which leads to the street of 
Solomon's Temple. There are three of these gates in this 
street, on the north side. The Beautiful Gate is that 
nearest the Temple, to the westward thereof, near the 
hospice of the Damascenes. Not far to the southward 
of Solomon's Temple, within the same enclosure of walls, 
is the Lord's Temple,^ wherein the first-born males were 
presented, wherein Jesus also was presented, and Simeon 
took Him into his arms. It has a leaden roof, a choir 
after the Saracen fashion, looking toward the south, and 
twenty windows on either side. It stands at the utter- 
most corner of the city towards the Valley of Siloam. 
Then one goes down from the street of the judgment-hall 
a good way to the left, and there may be seen the house 
of Simon the Pharisee, where the Magdalen was forgiven 
her sins. Next, turning back again, in the street of the 
judgment-hall, is Joachim's house, ^ where the Virgin Mary 
was born. At this place there is a church, now in the 
hands of the Saracens, and it is eighty-six paces distant 
from the first gate of Solomon's Temple. Moreover, forty 
long paces straight on from Joachim's house is the Gate 
of the Flocks, or of the Valley. In this walk the sheep- 
pool stands on the right hand, towards Solomon's Temple. 

It is a hundred and sixty-three long paces from this 
same gate to the vaulted arch over Cedron. Across 

1 Fabri, i. 451. 

2 Poloner here, contrary to the invariable custom, calls the Kiibbet-es- 
Sakhra ' Solomon's Temple,' and the Mosque El Aksa ' The Lord's 
Temple.' ^ Fabri, i. 455, 483; ii. 133, 399. 



THE HOL V LAND. 



Cedron there once lay a tree, the tree whereon Christ 
suffered. This was shown to the Queen of Sheba, the 
Queen of the South,^ who came from the uttermost parts 
of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon (Matt. xii. 42) ; 
wherefore one reads in the Book of Kings, ' The Queen of 
Sheba came to Jerusalem to Solomon with a very great 
train, with camels that bare spices, and very much gold, 
and precious stones.'^ Under the figure of this queen is 
typified the Church, which cometh from the Gentiles. 
Lastly, beyond the brook, on the left hand, twenty-eight 
paces down the Valley of Jehoshaphat, down forty-eight^ 
steps, there is a fair church, wherein is the sepulchre of 
the glorious Virgin Mary, which measures the length of 
two outstretched arms, and three joints of the middle 
finger,* and has eight lamps continually burning. The 
first altar, by the side of the sepulchre, belongs to the 
Armenians ; the second, beneath a dark vault, belongs to 
the Georgians ; the third, under a window at the east 
end, belongs to the Greeks ; a fourth, on the north side, 
belongs to the Minorite brethren ; and the fifth, on the 
left hand of the first step of the stairs, belongs to the 
Jacobites. It should be noted that on the same side of 
the. stair there is an altar belonging to the Indians.^ In 
this same place rests Queen Millicent, who caused this 
church to be built. Fourteen paces eastward from its 

1 Fabri, i. 522. ^ j Kings x. i, 2. ^ Fabri, i. 466, says 'fifty-two.' 
* Fabri, i. 468, says ; ' The church is lofty and vaulted. The Virgin's 
sepulchre stands in the midst of it, and is a small chamber, like the 
Lord's sepulchre, splendidly ornamented and lighted with lamps, 
more even than the Lord's sepulchre itself.' 

^ Fabri, i. 468, says : ' The altar which is nearest to the sepulchre 
belongs to the Armenians ; a second, beneath a dark vault, belongs to 
the Georgians ; a third, under a window in the east end of the choir, 
belongs to the Greeks ; a fourth, in the corner on the north side, 
belongs to the Latins ; and a fifth, near the first step of the staircase, 
belongs to the Indians.' 



8 JOHN PO LONER'S DESCRIPTION OF 

door is the entrance to the cave beneath the rocks at the 
foot of the Mount of Olives, wherein the Lord Jesus, being 
in an agony, sweated drops of blood as He prayed thrice.^ 
Near a great rock, by the side of the mount, a strong 
stone's-throw to the south of this place of sorrow, sat the 
three disciples whom He found sleeping. Near to this 
place, eight paces distant, is the garden which is called 
the Garden of Flowers,^ being towards the brook, and 
exactly opposite to the Golden Gate. In this garden 
Christ was taken prisoner, and therein Peter struck the 
prince's servant, for He had often met His disciples there. 
Moreover, that is said to be the gate whereof Ezekiel 
said : * This is the gate that looketh toward the east : and 
it was shut. He hath entered in through it, and no man 
shall pass through it, because the Lord hath entered 
through it.*^ Now, Gethsemane, wherein the other eight 
Apostles stayed, is lower down to the southward, a bow- 
shot distant from the garden. Forty-five paces upwards 
from the garden is marked the place where the Blessed 
Virgin ascended into heaven, leaving her girdle for St- 
Thomas,^ who was not with his fellow-Apostles when the 
body of the glorious Virgin was taken up into heaven. 

We now ascend the Mount of Olives by a stony road 
which leads to the Gate of the Flock over the brook, and 
wherein is the place where Christ wept when he saw the 
city of Jerusalem,^ as we read in the Gospel story. This 
same place is two hundred and ten paces distant from the 
place aforesaid, and this way, whereon the Lord rode on 
Palm Sunday, divides the Mount of Olives from the Mount 
of Galilee. From the place of weeping one goes a hundred 
and ninety-five steps further up to the place where the angel 

^ Theoderich, ch. xxiii., says: 'As one goes out of the crypt one 
sees a very small chapel placed on the steps themselves.' 
2 'City of Jerusalem,' p. 41. 

* Fabri, i. 469. ^ Fabri, i. 479. 



THE HOLY LAND. 



Gabriel brought the palm-branch to the glorious Virgin, 
and foretold her departure from this world.^ From thence, 
leaving the road, one goes up one hundred and twenty paces 
to the left up the Mount of Galilee, whereon Christ^ ap- 
peared for the fifth and last time to His disciples, as He had 
promised. There is a place, once well built upon, where 
a plenary indulgence was to be had, which now is given 
in the Holy City. Returning from this mount, one goes 
tvvo hundred and seventy-seven paces to the church^ of 
the Mount of Olives, wherein is a round chapel, measuring 
in its outer circuit sixteen paces. Within this may be 
seen the mark of Christ's left foot, which He imprinted 
on the stone when He ascended into heaven, and it 
measures in length one palm and two joints of the middle 
finger. In this same chapel the Saracens offer devout 
prayers, and have a stone in the same.* Moreover, they 
have written over the door of the same chapel in red 
letters of their alphabet, ' I am the door of mercy.' One 
pace from that chapel near a blocked-up door in the east 
wall there lies an immovable stone, the last stone whereon 
Christ sat on the day of His ascension, and preached to 
His disciples, teaching them about the seven forms of the 
Holy Spirit. Also from the south side of this church, on 
the outside, there is a way down eighteen steps into a 
chapel^ wherein St. Pelagia did penance, and wherein she 
lies buried, with a great stone above her raised sepulchre. 

Moreover, five furlongs away from tne Mount of Olives 
towards the Jordan, or eastward, there may be seen a 
desolate place, near the valley which is called Bethphage, 
which is the place^ from whence Christ sent James and 

1 Fabri, i. 480. 2 Pabri, i. 481. ^ Pabri, i. 484. 

* Fabri, i. 487. 

^ Fabri, i. 498, 499 : Anton. Plac, ch. xvi. ; Theoderich, in Tobler's 
edition, pp. 245, 247, note ; Anon. Pilgrims, ii. 7 ; v. i ; vii. 73. 
6 Fabri, ii. 80. 



10 JOHN POLONER'S DESCRIPTION OF 

John to bring Him an ass and her foal. This place is 
midway on the road from the Mount of Olives to Bethany. 
Turning back to the Mount of Olives, one goes along the 
road which divides that mount from the Mount of Offence, 
which stands on the left hand towards the Valley of 
Gehennon. Upon this mount Solomon set up the idol 
Moloch^ and worshipped it. Twenty paces from the afore- 
said chapel of St. Pelagia is the place^ where the Apostles 
one after the other put together the twelve articles of 
faith. At this place may be seen the ruins of the Church 
of St. Mark.^ Ten paces further toward the city there 
lies on the ground a great stone,* whereon Christ preached 
and taught His disciples about the eight beatitudes. Also 
twenty-two paces lower down is marked the place^ where 
the Lord Jesus taught His disciples to pray, as we read 
in Matt. vi. Notice the stone inscribed with Hebrew 
letters, which the Saracens have placed on the threshold 
of the door. Descending another twelve paces, one comes 
to the place where the Blessed Virgin Mary often rested 
herself when wearied with her daily pilgrimage.^ 

After this one goes down to the left towards the Valley 
of Siloam, and sees the little church of the Holy Cross 
with three altars, near which, sixteen paces ' toward the 
south, is the dwelling of Judas Iscariot, and the place where 
he hanged himself Beneath the rocks near the city, a 
bowshot from the aforesaid little church, is the tomb of 
Zacharias, who was slain between the Temple and the 
altar. Adjoining that place is a chapel wherein there is 
a hole in the wall of the shape of a baker's oven, wherein 
James the Less hid himself for fear at the time of Christ's 
passion and death, until the Lord appeared to him.^ From 

1 Fabri, ii. 143. ^ Fabri, i. 501. ^ Fabri, i. 500. 

* Fabri, i. 502. ^ Fabri, i. 501. ^ Fabri, i. 503. 

7 Fabri,li. 518. 



THE HOL V LAND. 1 1 

this chapel there is a way into a kind of dwelling hewn in 
the rock above it, which is said to have been the house of 
the blessed Apostles Phih'p and James. Two paces further, 
over against the corner of the city wall, there may be seen 
a truly wondrous building with no door, in the form of a 
square chapel, measuring sixteen fathoms {Klaftern) round 
about, and all up to the very roof hewn out of the solid 
living rock. Some declare that it is the tomb of King 
Jehoshaphat, from whom the valley takes its name ; some 
that it is the tomb of Pharaoh's daughter, whom Solomon 
dearly loved, and some that it is that of David's son 
Absalom. Note that from the second arch of the bridge 
thrown over the brook (Cedron) at this place, it is six 
hundred and fifteen long paces to the first step leading up 
to the church on the Mount of Olives, of which steps there 
are twenty. I have added this that I may show the 
height of the aforesaid mount. At this same place beneath 
the rocks at the foot of the Mount of Olives there dwell 
husbandmen and shepherds. 

Next one descends to the bottom of the watercourse 
going southward to the well whereat it is said that the 
Blessed Virgin Mary bathed and washed the swaddling 
clothes of the infant Lord. This fount divides the Valley 
of Jehoshaphat from the Valley of Siloam. Two hundred 
and fifty-five paces to the south of this, at the foot of 
Mount Sion, is the fountain of Siloam, from which the 
waters collect in the lower pool, which is called the bathing 
pool of Siloam, which signifies ' sent,' as John tells us of 
the man who was born blind. Two stone's-throws from 
this same mount one sees a heap of stones, at which place 
Isaiah^ was buried, and also was put to death. Then one 
goes up a lofty mountain toward the south, on whose side 
there are many caves^ and grottoes, wherein the Apostles 

1 Fabri, i. 529. 2 Fabri, i. 532. 



12 JOHN POLONER'S DESCRIPTION OF 

hid themselves at the time of Christ's passion, and wherein 
afterwards Christian hermits used to dwell. Thirty paces 
above these caves is the field called Acheldamach,^ which 
was bought for the thirty pieces of silver, and has nine 
openings through which corpses are thrust in. 

Between the Pool of Siloam and Acheldamach is (the 
brook) Cedron, which draws its waters from the upper parts 
of the city and of the mountains. Indeed, near Ramatha 
and Anathoth, a long way from the Blessed Virgin's 
Sepulchre, its murmur can be heard beneath the earth. 
One goes down beneath the Mount of Offence into the 
Valley of Gehennon or Tophet, wherein is the stone 
Zoheleth^ and the well Rogeli, where Adonijah sacrificed 
his victims. At this place there are fertile fields, because 
these waters run through them. When one has seen all 
these things, one must return toward the city by the same 
road by which we came, as far as the chapel of St. James 
the Less, which is beside the arched vault over Cedron, 
whereof mention was made before, when we were coming 
down the Mount of Olives. 

Now, from this arch^ to the house of Caiaphas, which is 
on the top of Mount Sion, is seven hundred and thirty 
paces. In going up, one comes first to a place where there 
may be seen a blocked-up gate, through which the Blessed 
Virgin passed when she presented Jesus in the Temple. 
Going higher up from thence, towards the west, is the 
place called the Cock-crowing, where Peter wept,* being 
one hundred and eighty-seven paces distant from the house 
of Caiaphas. From the aforesaid place one goes upwards 
eighty paces towards the west. Near the Gate of the 
Street of the Jews, which gate looks out of the city to the 

1 Fabri, i. 534. 2 i Kings i. 9 ; Fabri, i. 539. 

"^ 'City of Jerusalem,' p. 19, note. 
* Anon., V. 25 ; Fabri, i. 313, 320. 



THE HOLY LAND, 13 



southward, there is a place marked at which the Jews^ 
essayed to lay violent hands upon the glorious Virgin's 
body, when it was being borne along by the Apostles for 
burial. Seventy-six paces from the aforesaid gate the street 
of the synagogue of the Jews extends for two hundred and 
thirty-seven paces, up to the entrance to the covered streets.^ 
From this entrance it is ninety-three paces to the Castle 
of David ; but many Saracens dwell there nevertheless.^ 
In the next street to this is the house wherein St. Peter 
was chained ; the place of his prison is a baker's oven. 
In this same street there is a little gate toward the south, 
which in their tongue is called the eye of a needle, whereof 
the Lord said, * It is easier for a camel to pass through the 
eye of a needle,' etc. From the place of the aforesaid 
violent attempt at robbery (of the Virgin's body) to the 
place where she died is one hundred and thirty-six paces, 
which I counted with the greatest care that I could. First, 
however, one sees the house of Annas the high-priest, 
wherein is a fair enough church of the Armenians, well 
adorned with lights and lamps, and having four round 
pillars. Two stone's-throws higher up is the house of 
Caiaphas on the top of the mount, as aforesaid, wherein 
is now a little church, which is called St. Saviour's Chapel, 
and rightly so, for above the altar of this chapel is placed 
that great stone with which the mouth of Christ's tomb 
was sealed up. Moreover, behind the altar, above it, there 
is a painting of the Transfiguration. At this same place, 
near the altar, on the right-hand side, is Christ's prison, 
wherein He was shut up until the Jews assembled, held a 
council, and heard testimony against Him. This, chapel 
also belongs to the Armenian Christians. 

Also on the same mount toward the street (?) is the 

1 Fabri, i. 313. 

"^ The vaulted bazars. See ' City of Jerusalem,' ch. x., note. 

3 Although it was the Jews' quarter. 



14 JOHN POLONERS DESCRIPTION OF 

place where St. Stephen^ was buried for the second time. 
Also twenty-two paces to the south behind the choir (of 
the church of Mount Sion) is the place of the kitchen,^ 
where the Paschal lamb was made ready to be eaten, and 
where also the water was warmed for washing the disciples' 
fee . Also in the place which now is the dwelling where 
the Holy Spirit was sent down upon the disciples, David, 
Solomon, and many other kings of Jerusalem were buried.^ 
Also in the burial-ground of this same church, on the 
north side, is marked the place where the Lord Jesus* 
Himself on the day of His Ascension preached, blamed 
the folly of His disciples, and sent them forth into the 
world, but first went with them to the Mount of Olives, 
and, after giving them His blessing, ascended into heaven. 
Twelve feet from this inscribed stone there is another stone 
fixed in the ground, on the place where the Blessed Virgin 
Mary sat and listened to her Son's preaching. Also five 
paces off is the place where her cottage stood, wherein she 
dwelt after her Son's Ascension. Also thirteen paces off 
is the place where St. Matthias was elected by lot into the 
number of the Apostles on the morrow of the Ascension. 
In this same place the seven deacons were elected, who 
were rightly appointed to minister to widows, of which 
deacons Stephen was the first. In this same place St. 
James the Less was elected by the Apostles Bishop of 
Jerusalem.^ Ten paces further is the worshipful place 
where the glorious Virgin departed from the world. Eight 
paces further toward the house of Caiaphas is a place with 
a chapel. The name of Mount Sion is, being interpreted, 
watch-tower. Note that Petra in the desert, which is in 
Arabia, may be watched and seen from that mount. From 
thence I have seen the Jordan entering into the Dead Sea, 

1 Fabri, i. 309. ^ jTabri, i. 308, 309. ^ Fabri, i. 301. 

* 'City of Jerusalem,' p. 2. ^ Fabri, i. 530. 



THE HOL V LAND. - 1 5 



but only in the early morning, for when the sun has risen 
up in the firmannent, its course cannot be seen. Now, in 
the church of Mount Sion where the high altar now stands, 
in that very place Christ supped with His disciples, giving 
them His own body and blood, wherefore it was called by 
Christ the Great Supper-room. 1 Also another altar in 
the corner on the right hand stands in the place where 
He on that same night washed His disciples' feet. Also 
behind the high altar, on the outside, up above, there is the 
place where the Holy Spirit,^ the Comforter, was sent on 
the Day of Pentecost, as was promised to the Apostles. 
Immediately beneath this building, in a vault seven paces 
long, having two small windows on the eastern side, David 
and his son Solomon are buried. Likewise in the lower 
story^ of the cloister there is a chapel on the place where 
for the strengthening of his faith St. Thomas* thrust his 
hand into Christ's side. 

From this monastery our pilgrimage led toward David's 
Castle, which is three hundred and eighty paces distant 
from his tomb. But on our way we first come to the 
church of the Armenians. This church is round, with 
strong walls and exceeding powerful buttressed vaults, 
having four squared columns in the middle, and no window 
save one round glazed one at the top, but three hundred 
or more lamps. Indeed, in my time one hundred and 
twenty lamps used to burn in this church in one chan- 
delier,^ and I never saw or heard of such great devotion 
in the people. On the left-hand side of the entrance is 
shown the place where St. James the Great was beheaded, 
which place is two hundred and twenty-two paces distant 
from the place where his brother John celebrated Mass.^ 

1 Coenacuhnn Grande. 2 Pabri, i. 291. ^ Fabri, i. 288, note. 

* Fabri, i. 293. ^ Fabri, i. 321. 

^ Fabri, i. 322 : ' This church is great and lofty, insomuch that it 



i6 JOHN POLONER'S DESCRIPTION OF 

Also within a stone's-throw of the aforesaid castle is the 
place where Mary Magdalen met the Blessed Virgin, and 
brought her tidings that her Son was alive and had risen 
from the dead. Here also Christ appeared to the three 
Maries, saying : * All hail V In the street of the Bishop 
of Jerusalem is the house of St. Zacharias, which belongs 
to the Georgians, and therein is a fair chapel dedicated to 
St. John the Baptist. Before the entrance to the house 
is a darksome vault, an exceeding ancient structure, and 
it stands half-way along the street between the Church 
of the Holy Sepulchre and David's Castle. Next comes 
the house wherein the three kings were entertained.^ 
Take notice of the door, whereat St. Mary of Egypt^ could 
not enter while weighed down by the burden of her sins, 
which door is to be seen in the street that leads to 
Emmaus. Next follows 



The Pilgrimage from the City of Jerusalem to 
THE Eastward to Bethany. 

Having thus seen such places as are near at hand, we 
must now pass to those which are further off, that our 
devotional feeling may be increased. First one passes 
over to Bethany, which is distant from Jerusalem half a 
German mile — that is, about fifteen furlongs (John xi. i8) 
— where, beneath the castle, may be seen the sepulchre 



overtops every other church which is in Jerusalem, and is seen before 
them, for the first thing which one sees is the dome of this church. It 
has no windows, but light comes through an opening in the top, and 
fills the church. There are many chapels round about it. which are 
now ruined and desecrated. In the church itself hang many lamps, 
and in the midst there hang a hundred and twenty lamps in one 
chandelier.' 

1 Fabri, i. 484. ^ Anon., p. 2. 



THE HOLY LAND. 



of Lazarus, who was raised from the dead by Christ ; 
and there was once a great church, whose pillars may- 
be seen standing at this day. Under a dark vault, ten 
paces from that sepulchre, is the altar. This was the 
place where Christ stood when He called him forth 
from the tomb. Also outside, near this, but higher 
up,^ is the house of Simon the leper, which has two 
cisterns. It was here that the Magdalen poured the oint- 
ment upon His head as He sat at meat, whereat Judas 
was wroth. Six days before the Passover Jesus supped 
in Bethany, and Martha waited on Him, while her mother 
was one of those at table ; wherefore a great rabble of 
the Jews came thither desiring to slay Lazarus also (John 
xii. 9, lo). Six bowshots from Bethany there may be 
seen in a field a great stone,^ whereon the Lord was 
sitting when Martha met Him and said to Him : ' Lord, 
if Thou hadst been here,' etc. A stone's-throw from that 
stone, on the left hand, toward Jordan, may be seen the 
ruins of Martha's house,^ and its cloister and warm bath 
marked out cunningly beneath the rocks. One bowshot 
from thence, on the right hand lower down the hill toward 
the south, was the Magdalen's house, on whose site stands 
a ruined church, now made into a goat-byre. The Lord 
Jesus was very often entertained and fed in these two 
houses. , On either side there is a sloping valley, but that 
on the left hand is the deeper of the two. In it is the 
road over which the Lord passed when He came from 
Jericho on His way up to Jerusalem. Next follows 

1 Fabri, ii. Th ^ Fabri, ii. 74. ^ Fabri, ii. 75. 



i8 JOHN POLONEKS DESCRIPTION OF 

The Pilgrimage from Jerusalem to Bethlehem. 

First one sees Simeon's house, near Jerusalem, on the 
right-hand side, among the vineyards beyond the road to 
Garwin (Ain K^rim) ; to the left, on a hill near Mount Sion, 
there is a building in the form of a castle, which is called 
the House of Evil Counsel, into which Judas went to do his 
betrayal, to make terms for delivering up Christ. At this 
place there was a fair church dedicated to St. Cyprian. A 
good way beyond this one comes to a well.^ At this place 
the lost star shone again upon the three kings, in whose 
honour a church once stood here, whose pavement and 
extent can be traced. Away from the road, on a hill on 
the right hand, is St. George's^ Church. Further on, on the 
left hand, not far from the road, there is a tall building, 
a beauteous church belonging to the Greeks, with a well 
near its south wall. In this building Elias was born and 
dwelt during his life, and it stands midway along the road 
between the two aforesaid cities, about one German mile 
from each of them. In the time of Elias the heavens 
were shut up for three years and six months. Between 
Jerusalem and Bethlehem or Ephrata is Mount Gion, 
whereon Solomon was anointed and crowned, and upon 
which the church of St. Cyprian was built, as aforesaid. 
Further on, near the road, there are the traces of a great 
tower, where Jacob wrestled with the angel (Gen. xxxii.). 
After this, on the right hand, near the road which leads 
to Hebron, is his wife Rachel's tomb,^ finely built by the 
Saracens and looking toward the south, where they have 
a burial-place. This place is called Chabratha.* Not far 
from here one comes to the field^ where the seed of peas 

1 Fabri, i. 542. 2 Fabri, ii. 203. 

3 Fabri, i. 546 ; ii. 196. * Probably a corruption oi Kubbet Rahil. 

^ Fabri, i. 544. 



THE HOLY LAND. 



19 



or pulse was by the will of God turned into stones of the 
size and number of peas. 

In the city of Bethlehem, on the western side, was the 
church of SS. Cosmas and Damian. On the right hand, 
as one enters the great church, near the choir, there is 
an altar which marks the place where many of the Inno- 
cents were slain. At this same place the Lord Jesus was 
circumcised. Near a well on the left hand side there is 
an altar,^ where the Magi made themselves ready in 
splendid fashion to offer their gifts to the new-born King. 
It is said that the star disappeared into that well.^ Next 
one goes down sixteen steps^ into a chapel beneath the 
choir, wherein the Saviour of the world was born. At 
this same place, on the left hand as one comes in, there is 
an altar. Seven feet and three steps from this, beneath 
the rock, is the place where the babe Jesus was laid in 
the manger, and was worshipped there by the shepherds. 
Note that this church is thirty-six paces long in the inside, 
eighteen paces wide, and has four rows of marble columns. 
Each of these rows has twelve columns, seven feet apart, 
as far as the choir. It is crowded with every kind of 
ornament both on the pavement and on the walls, and is 
covered by a leaden roof. It has Christ^s genealogy 
painted in mosaics up above on the right-hand side as 
one comes in. Its twofold door is of cypress wood carved 
with divers mouldings ; its side-walls were covered with 
marble slabs, which have been carried off by the traitorous 
Saracens, and in this church a miracle came to pass : for 
a certain Soldan, when he beheld its wondrous panelling, 
thought that he would carry it off and therewith encase 
and adorn his own palace in Cairo. So when he came on 
the day which he had appointed, together with masons 
and sculptors, meaning to carry away these beauteous 
1 Fabri, i. 556. -^ Fabri, 562. ^ Fabri, i 557. 



20 JOHN POLONER'S DESCRIPTION OF 

Stones, of a sudden a monstrous serpent shone forth and 
appeared on the wall crawling through the stone slabs 
and passing through the midst of them. His track on 
the wall may be seen at this day, as I myself saw, reach- 
ing as far as the altar of the three kings by the aforesaid 
well. When the Soldan saw this he was confounded and 
went his way.^ In the cloister of this monastery on the 
north side one goes down nineteen steps^ into the chapel, 
which is called St. Jerome's Study, where he laboured for 
fifty-five years and six months at the translation of the 
Scriptures. Close by here, three paces off, through the 
wall, in a dark corner near the altar, beneath the Lord's 
manger, is the tomb wherein he was first buried. But 
when the Holy Land was given over into the hands of 
traitors, and Jerusalem no longer knew any defender, his 
venerable bones and those of many other saints were 
translated to Rome. Moreover, on the left hand there 
are caves close by beneath the overhanging rocks, wherein 
many bodies of the Innocents^ were thrown and hidden. 

The length of the road from Jerusalem to Bethlehem is 
two leagues, that is, one German mile, and along this road 
many mystical events have come to pass. Abraham and 
his wife passed along this road when they came from 
Chaldaea. Lot and his wife walked on this road when 
he came from the parts beyond the mountains. The 
patriarch Jacob and his wife Rachel often passed over it. 
The Blessed Virgin Mary when pregnant went there and 
back along this road and rested when weary. Also the 
three kings passed the same way when they sought the 
boy Jesus. Also Isaiah and Elijah and many of the holy 
prophets, v^^hen going to the Holy City, passed along this 
road. Also the Blessed Virgin on her journey to and from 
Egypt went along this road with Joseph. 

1 Fabri, i. 597-599. ^ Fabri, i. 552. ^ Pabri, i. 565. 



THE HOL Y LA ND. 2 1 



A stone's-throw from Bethlehem toward the south there 
was a church wherein Paula^ and Eustochium were buried. 
This is St. Nicholas's^ Church, and therein Mary abode 
with the babe and Joseph on the first night of the Flight 
into Egypt. Note the milk which was spilt there.^ Now, 
the road between Jerusalem and Bethlehem takes three 
hours to pass along. Also a quarter of a mile from 
Bethlehem down the valley leading toward the Dead Sea 
there was once a fair building with a church, which was 
called the Church of the Shepherds ; for in that place the 
angel brought the shepherds tidings of great joy, and bade 
them go to Bethlehem and worship the child Jesus, and 
they straightway arose, and went along the side of the 
mountain to Bethlehem, where each one held the other 
back, saying one to another that the voice of the angel 
had been a vain imagination, and they began to go back 
to their flock. Then the angel came to them a second 
time, and forced them to finish the journey which they 
had begun. At this same place there stands a church 
with one altar. Some say that here the Blessed Virgin 
strayed out of the road which leads to Egypt;* but the 
former story is more in accord with the truth. Moreover, 
two leagues to the south of Bethlehem are the sepulchres 
of the twelve prophets.^ Next follows 

The Pilgrimage from Bethlehem to the Valley 
OF Hebron. 

On the way from Bethlehem to the Valley of Hebron 
is shown the place where Abraham beheld three angels 
and worshipped one (God).^ In the church at Hebron 

1 Fabri, i. 575. 2 pabri, i. 567. ^ Fabri, i. 563. 

* Fabri, i. 569. ^ Abbot Daniel, p. 49, note ; Fabri, ii. 404. 

'^ See Anon. Pilgrims, p. 38, note. 



22 JOHN POLONER'S DESCRIPTION OF 

one sees a manifold rent in the rock, which is called the 
double cave, wherein Adam, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, 
with their wives, to wit, Eve, Sarah, Rebecca, and Leah, 
are buried. Not far from the town is the Field of Da- 
mascus, where Adam and Eve were created.^ Next 
follows 

The Pilgrimage from Hebron to Jerusalem. 

From Hebron one goes to Jerusalem through the hill 
country of Judaea, where may be seen the house^ of 
Zachariah, in which the Blessed Virgin visited Elizabeth. 
In this place there are two churches, built one above^ the 
other, but the upper one has been destroyed. In the lower 
church one sees a rent in the rock on the right hand as 
one goes in, which is the place wherein the child John was 
hidden for fear of King Herod when he was killing the 
children. When one has come a little way down from 
thence, one is shown a fountain* which bursts forth near 
the road on the right-hand side, beside which the Virgin 
Mary sat down and rested herself, being weary with her 
journey, when she went to visit her kinswoman, who, it is 
believed, met her at this place, and said,^ * Whence is this 
to me, that the mother of my Lbrd should come to me ?' 
Here also the Lord's mother made the song, to wit, * My 
soul doth magnify the Lord,* etc. After this one turns 
out of the road to the left hand, to a hill whereon once 
was a fair church, now defiled with rubbish and full of 
mules' dung, which church no pilgrim can enter without 
payment. Here^ was born St. John the Baptist, the son 

1 Fabri, ii. 411. 2 pabri, i. 630 ; ii. 204. 

^ Fabri, I think, makes it clear that the two churches were separate 
buildings, not different stories of the same building. 
* Fabri, i. 631. ^ Fabri, i. 63?. 

^ Fabri, i. 638, 639, describes the church as ' lolty and vaulted, and 



THE HOLY LAND. 23 

of Zacharias, who said, * Blessed be the Lord God,' etc. 
From thence one goes on to another well-ornamented 
church belonging to the Georgians, called the Church of 
St. Cross,^ because the tree of Christ's cross stood and 
grew there, and the hole wherein it stood may be seen at 
this day beneath their altar. After this, near the road 
which leads to Gaza, may be seen the water^ wherein 
Philip baptized the eunuch (Acts viii.). 

The Divisions of the Holy Land. 

The land which we call the Holy Land came to be 
divided by lot among the twelve tribes of Israel, and with 
regard to one part was called the kingdom of Judaea, 
which was the land of two tribes, to wit, Judah and 
Benjamin ; with regard to the other part it was called the 
kingdom of Samaria, whose capital was the city of 
Samaria, also called Sebaste, and was the capital of the 
other ten tribes, which part was called Israel. Both these 
kingdoms, together with the land of Philistim, were called 
Palestine, which was but a part thereof, even as Saxony 
and Lorraine are parts of Germany, and Lombardy and 
Tuscany are parts of Italy. And note that there are 
three Palestines. In the first, the capital city is Jerusalem, 
with all its hill country even to the Dead Sea and the 
wilderness of Kadesh Barnea. The second, whose capital 
city is Caesarea by the sea, with all the land of Philistim* 
beginning at Petra Incisa,^ and reaching as far as Gaza, was 
the Holy Land toward the south. The third is the capital 
city of Bethsan, at the foot of Mount Gilboa. This was 
once called Scythopolis, and is the place where the corpses 

still painted, but- standing full of cattle, asses and camels, and there 
was nought therein save dung and filth and a great stench,' etc. 

1 Fabri, ii. i. ^ Abbot Daniel, li., note ; Fabri, ii. 204. 

3 The modern Athlit, the* Certa' of the Jerusalem itinerary. See below. 



24 JOHN POLONER'S DESCRIPTION OF 

of Saul's soldiers were hung up. This Palestine is properly 
called Galilee, wherein is the plain of Esdraelon, which 
begins at the lesser Jordan, and whose confines toward the 
south stretch as far as Gelin^ (Ginaea), a ruined town, 
in square 37, upon a hill which in this map I have 
painted green, belonging to Samaria. Samaria begins at 
the aforesaid Gelin {sic), and reaches as far as the river 
Jordan and to Maginas (Michmash), in square 53, which 
adjoins Judaea. I have painted Judaea and its hill 
country yellow. Galilee of the Gentiles begins at the 
aforesaid lesser Jordan, and reaches northward to Mount 
Lebanon. It is in the country of Decapolis, whose 
boundaries are the Sea of Galilee on the east, Sidon on 
the west, and Damascus on the north. Within these 
bounds there are ten cities, from which the country is 
called Decapolis, and they are Tiberias, Bethsan, Jonapata 
(Jotapata), Sephet (Safed), Cedes Neptalim, Assur, Caesarea 
Philippi, Capernaum, Bethsaida, and Chorazin. There are, 
however, more cities than these therein, as is shown above. 
The Lord Jesus went through aH these cities and castles, 
teaching in their synagogues, and preaching the Gospel of 
the kingdom (Matt. iv. 23). 

The length of the promised land from Dan, which is at 
the foot of Mount Lebanon on the north, to Beersheba on 
the south, which is near the wilderness of Egypt, is forty- 
two German miles or two hundred and ten Italian miles, 
while its width from the western sea to the edge of the 
mountains of Arabia is fourteen great miles or seventy 
Italian miles. Thus, the whole of the Holy Land is 
divided into eighty-three squares and into twenty-eight 
spaces breadthways, by drawing lines across it, over the 
lines from west to east. Now, in the second space and the 

^ See Fetellus, p. 32 ; John of Wiirzburg, ch. i., note ; Theoderich, 
p. 62, etc. 



THE HOL V LAND. 25 



twelfth square is Bozra in the country of Bostoron, men- 
tioned in Isaiah Ixii. (sic). The road through the city of 
Cedrar (Cedar), in square 23, leads to Aran (Aram), Meso- 
potamia, Hammam, Hyrcania, and to the Caspian Sea. 
By this road these peoples are wont to assemble every year 
on the plain of the fountain Phiale, where they hold a fair 
throughout the whole of the month of May, and set up 
there divers coloured tents in the city of Cedar on the 
mount, which make a pretty sight. These are spoken of 
in Solomon's Song as ' the tents of Kedar.'^ Josephus 
calls this city Camela, because the mount whereon it 
stands is formed in the shape of a camel. In square 24 
(53) in the mountains to the eastward is Areopolis, 
which once was called Aror (Aroer), the capital of Arabia 
Secunda, being four days' journey from Petra in the 
desert. At this Petra, Isaiah says, ' Send, O Lord, the 
lamb from Petra in the wilderness to the mount of the 
daughter of Sion.'^ It was upon this mount that John 
beheld the lamb standing (Rev. xiv.). Upon this Petra is 
built an impregnable castle once (called) Pirach (Kirach), 
wherein the Soldan lays up the treasures of Arabia and 
Egypt. Midway between this Petra and Areopolis there 
is the brook Sorec and the Mount Abarim, where Moses, 
was buried by the angels. Three days' journey south from 
this Petra is Mount Seir, which borders on the wilderness 
of Pharan, and it is called the land of Arabia, even to the 
Red Sea. Note that at the edge of the mountains of 
iVrabia Prima, round about Mount Sanir, begins the land 
of Huz, which is also called the province of Trachonitis, 
and extends even to Cedar and the Sea of Galilee, being 

1 Cant. i. 5. 

2 Isa. x.vi. I. The A.V. reads, ' Send ye the lamb to the ruler of 
the land from Sela to the wilderness unto the mount of the daughter 
of Zion.' 



26 JOHN POLONER'S DESCRIPTION OF 

partly formed by the country of Decapolis. Likewise 
from the edge of the mountains of Arabia Secunda, even 
to the Jordan, was the kingdom of Og, King of Basan, 
which fell to the lot of the tribe of Gad as far as the brook 
Jabbok. I have painted this kingdom yellow to distinguish 
it from the others. All the land near this, which I have 
made white, is called Bethany, where John was baptized, 
and was the kingdom of Sihon, King of Heshbon, which 
was in the portion of the tribe of Issachar. Between the 
brooks Ainan (Arnon) and Sorec is the plain country of 
Moab, and there is shown the place where Balaam and 
the ass talked with one another, and where the Book of 
Deuteronomy was put forth. But the yellow country 
beyond the brook Sorec to the south is called the land of 
Moab and of Ammon, as aforesaid. 

Note that there are three cities of refuge beyond Jordan. 
The first, under square 23, near the hill country of Arabia, 
is called Golan. The second, under square 37, is called 
Ramoth Gilead ; and the third, under square 33, is called 
Efifrem,^ where Christ abode with His disciples. And there 
are three cities of refuge toward the western sea : one is 
Hebron, under square 69 ; the second is Sebaste, under 
square 43 ; and the last is on this side of Lake Merom, and 
is called Kedesh Naphtali, in the Valley of Sanin, which 
was the city of Barak. These six cities are marked on the 
map with this mark ^*^. Under square 19 is placed this 
mark /\' . This is the place where the Lord satisfied four 
thousand people with seven loaves. Under square 19, near 
this mark "V, the Lord fed five thousand men with five 
loaves, as is written in John vi. Under square 19, near 
this mark C, the centurion made entreaty for his servant. 
At the same place the Lord cleansed the leper beside the 
Sea of Galilee. Near Capernaum, Matthew, Andrew, 

^ To^in xi. i;4. 



THE HOLY LAND. 27 



Peter, James, and John were called to be Apostles. Under 
square 21, Peter, Andrew and Philip came from Bethsaida 
(John i., xii.). Under square 36 is Machaerunta, where 
John the Baptist was beheaded. 

In the summer time the most part of Lake Merom dries ; 
so that bushes and thick grass grow there, wherein lurk 
lions and other beasts, and there is delightful hunting there. 
A little way to the north I have marked with a sword the 
place where Joshua fought against the King of Assur and 
twenty-four other kings, whom he chased unto Sidon, 
what time the day was doubled and the sun stood still : 
wherefore to him was given the glory of Lebanon and the 
excellency of Carmel and Sharon (Isa. xxxv.). To the 
north of Sidon, two days' journey beyond the Holy Land, 
in the harbour of the Damascenes, is the ancient and noble 
city of Baruth (Beyrout), but its port is a perilous one. The 
north wind forced us to enter it on St. Thomas's Eve. On 
Christmas Eve we journeyed back to the great rivers, and 
at dawn on the feast-day following were forced by a storm 
to put into this port for a second time, where we let go out 
anchors, and rode in sorrowful case until the Circumcision. 
Two hundred and ninety paces from the outside of the east 
gate of this town is shown the place where St. Jerome 
(George) slew the coiled serpent. Under square 31 is the 
fountain of Israel, whereof we read in the First Book of 
Kings (i Sam. xxix. i), where the Philistines pitched 
their camp when Saul was in Gilboa. Between Mount 
Gilbo^ and Mount Hermoniim^ there is a valley two 
leagues wide and not eight leagues long, down to the 
Jordan, wherein many battles have been fought: Gideon 
against Midian, Ahab against the Assyrians, and in 
modern times, also, the Tartars against the Saracens. I 
have marked this place with a sword. Under square 19 is 
1 The Hermons. See Ps. xlii. 7. 



2« JOHN POLONERS DESCRIPTION OF 

the house of St. George, where St. Matthew is believed to 
have been born. It stands between mountains, in a rich 
and fertile valley which reaches even to the Sea of Galilee. 
Because of its beauty it was well said of it : ' Out of Asher 
his bread shall be fat, and he shall yield royal dainties ' 
(Gen. xlix. 20) ; which was fulfilled in the lot of the tribe 
of Asher. In space 16, square 22, is Naphtali, whence 
came Tobias. It stands in a strong place, inaccessible save 
for a short space on the east side. According to Josephus, 
it was called Jonapata (Jotapata) at the time of the de- 
struction of the Jews, and therein Josephus himself was 
besieged and taken by the Romans. It is now called Siran. 
Under square 24 is the village of Endor, whereof the Psalm 
says, ' which perished in Endor.'^ Under square 55 is Bethel, 
in the tribe of Benjamin, where Jacob set up the stone for 
a pillar when he slept there what time he was fleeing from 
his brother Esau, and saw the ladder, etc. He called the 
name of the place Bethel. To the east of it is the city of 
Ai, whereof we read in Joshua viii. Under square 69 is 
Mambre, where Abraham dwelt for a long time, and when 
sitting at the door of his tent, beneath the oak of Mambre, 
saw three men coming along the road, etc. (Gen. xviii.). 
This oak is shown at this day at the door of the tent. The 
old oak has withered away, but one" young one after another 
has sprung out of its root. In space 20 is Socoh of Judah, 
near the Valley of Elah,^ where David slew Goliath of 
Gath. Seth (Sethim) stands on a hill under square 56. 

Here beginneth the land of the Philistines. On this 
same hill Fulk, the Christian King of Jerusalem, built a fort 
named Ibelim, to check the insolence of them of Ascalon. 
Ascalon was a city of the Philistines, and is by the seaside, 
built in the shape of a half-circle, and one may call it the 
whole strength of the Saracens in that land. Under square 

^ Ps. Ixxxiii. 10. ^ I Sam. xvii. i, 2. 



THE HOLY LAND. 29 

22, on the seashore, is Ackon.once a Philistine city,^ (now) 
called Ptolemais. Under square 40 and in space 28 is 
Caesarea O — C by the sea (Caesarea Maritima), which 
Herod of Ascalon enlarged in honour of Augustus, and it 
was the capital of the seashore of Palestine. Josephus 
wrote much concerning it. Toward the east it has a wide 
and deep lake of sweet water, wherein are many crocodiles. 
The city itself is utterly destroyed. In it the Apostle 
Peter baptized Cornelius, and Paul was kept in prison there 
for a long time when on his way to Rome. It has an 
inconvenient harbour, but great abundance of gardens, 
meadows, and running streams, even to Lydda and towards 
the land of Sharon. I have marked Lydda with an arch, 
which you see on the place where stood the church of St. 
George, who was slain there. Arsur on the seashore, called 
Antipatris of old, belonged to the brethren of the hospital 
of St. John the Eleemosynary. ^ • . 

The city of Joppa hath no port. In it dwelt Tabitha, 
the handmaid of the Apostles. There Jonas went on board 
ship, when he would haye fled to Tarsus. In this city I did 
not see any living man, and, indeed, many of the cities along 
the sea-coast were destroyed by the Soldanwhen he heard 
that the aforesaid city of Ackon was taken by the kings of 
France and England. Sidon is a city of Phoenicia ; its 
ruins at this day bear witness to its greatness. It was built 
lengthwise on a plain, stretching from north to south, at 
the foot of Mount Antilibanus, Out of its ruins has been 
built another city, small indeed, but fortified, had it but any 
men to defend it. One side of it stands on the seashore, 
with two well-fenced castles on either side, the one on the 

1 He confounds Aeon (Acre) with Accaron (Ekron), unmindful of 
Thietmar's couplet : 

' Non est urbs Accaron quam quilibet aestimat Achon : 
Ilia Philistaea, Ptolemaida dicitur ista.' See Anon. ii. i. 

2 See Besant and Palmer's ' History of Jerusalem,' p. 274. 



30 JOHN POLONER'S DESCRIPTION OF 



north, which was built long ago by pilgrims from Germany, 
standing on acliff by the sea, and that to the south standing 
on a hill. Once the Knights of the Temple held these two 
castles, and the city also. There are sugar-canes there, and 
vineyards, exceeding good ones. Two leagues from thence 
is Sarepta, which has but few houses, though its ruins 
show that it once was a noble city. Tyre is in the country 
of the tribe of Asshur, but, nevertheless, the Asshurites 
never possessed it. Beyond it are wells of living water. 
Under square 43 is Sebaste, which is also called Samaria. 
It is all destroyed save two churches, one dedicated to 
St. John the Baptist, wherein is his sepulchre, made of 
marble after the pattern of the Lord's sepulchre, where he 
was buried between Elisha and Obadiah. Indeed, there 
once stood a cathedral church on the side of the mountain, 
but the Saracens have desecrated it. The other church is 
on the brow of the mount. It is inhabited by Greek monks 
who show therein the place where he was imprisoned. But 
this I hold to be a vain thing, seeing that he was beheaded 
at Machaerunta, under square 36. Under square 45 is 
Shechem, which the Greeks call Napalosa;^ it stands about 
two bowshots from Jacob's well. Joseph's bones are buried 
in Shechem. The Jews call it Sochim, and they call Sion 
Haraon. 

Of the Cities and Places in the Holy Land. 

The city of Acre (Ackon), which is in the province of 
Phoenicia, is well fenced with walls and towers, having 
the shape of a shield, whereof two sides rise out of the 
sea, and the third overlooks the land. In length it measures 
two miles, that is, sixteen furlongs, and it has fruitful 
fields and gardens. It never was part of the Holy Land, 
nor belonged to the children of Israel, albeit it was given 
1 Neapolis ; see p. 2. 



THE HOL V LAND. 3 1 



to the tribe of Asshur when the Holy Land was divided 
among them. It was one of the five cities of the Phih'stines/ 
standing by the sea, and it was near to it that the angel 
of the Lord, when he found Habbakuk carrying the 
reapers their dinner, bore him to Babylon,^ as we read in 
Daniel xiv.^ In the place where he was carried off by 
the angel there was a fair chapel. Eight leagues to the 
north of this city of Aeon may be seen that wondrous 
well of living water, near Tyre, built in a costl}'- fashion. 
Albeit it is called a well, in the singular number, yet is it 
not one, but three springs of the same form and position, 
though not of the same quantity of water. The chief one 
is about thirty-four, the other two are twenty-two cubits 
deep. They are enclosed within strong square walls of 
stout stones, a spear's-cast wide, within which the water 
boils and bubbles forth in such sort that it fills all the 
watercourses, and is spread over all the plain of Tyre. 
From it all the gardens and vineyards, fig orchards, olive- 
yards, and sugar-canes which grow there are watered, for 
these springs stand a bowshot from the sea. One league 
hence is the city of Tyre, which stands north of Aeon ; 
its praises have been written by some of the prophets. 
It rises on the seashore with a vast circuit of walls, washed 
by the sea on all sides save the east, where first Nebu- 
chadnezzar, and afterwards Alexander, made it join the 
land for about a stone's-throw. On this side it is girt 
with a triple and lofty wall with strong towers. In it 
Origen was buried. Many relics of the saints who have 
perished therein in the name of Christ remain to this day. 
Two bowshots to the south of the gate the place where 
Christ preached is marked by the stone whereon He stood, 
over which a church dedicated to the Saviour was built. 

1 See Anon, ii., ch. i, note. 

2 See Fabri, i. 543 ; Odoricus, ed. Laurent, p. 156. 'Early Travels 
in Palestine ' (Bohn), p. 149. 



32 JOHN POLONERS DESCRIPTION OF 

There also is the place where, after He had finished 
preaching, the woman said : 'Blessed be the womb/ etc. 
This place is never covered by the sand, albeit it is light 
and flies about even as in our own country in time of 
great cold the snow is snatched up and scattered abroad 
by the wind; but this place always remains green in the 
midst of the sands. Four leagues from Tyre is Sarepta 
of Sidon, before whose gate is shown the place where 
Elijah went to the widow of Sarepta. Not far from thence 
is the chapel where he raised her son from the dead. Two 
leagues from Sarepta is Sidon, once a great city, whose 
size is shown by the ruins of the walls. Nearly all of it 
stands in the heart of the sea, having on this side and on 
that two castles, one of them built on a hill near the plain, 
the other on a cliff by the sea. They were built by German 
pilgrims long ago. Another half-league from this city is 
Antilibanus, where grows exceeding fine wine, whereof the 
prophet saith : ' The scent thereof shall be as the wine 
of Lebanon ' (Hos. xiv. 7). Beyond Sidon, before its gate, 
the Lord healed the Canaanitish woman's daughter. 

Outside of the Holy Land, twenty Italian miles north 
of Sidon, is Beyrout, an ancient city with an abominable 
harbour, wherein I passed the night, not without fear, on 
the eve of the Feast of St. Thomas the Apostle, A.D. 1422. 
In an underground chamber in this city is shown an image 
of the Saviour^ which, not long after His passion, was 
painted in mockery of Him out of scorn, and was defiled 
and beaten by the infidels, until there came forth from it 
blood and water, whereby some of them were converted. 
It was a sitting image with mockers painted all round 
about it, as it was in Pilate's house when He was crowned 
with thorns and worshipped as a king. A chapel with 
one altar has been built there, to which one goes down 

^ Compare John of Wiirzburg, ch. xxiv. ; Theoderich, p. 71, etc. 



THE HOLY LAND. 33 



eighteen steps. Next to Beyrout, on the north, is Biblium,^ 
the first city of the patriarchate of Antioch. This place is 
spoken of in Ezekiel xxvii., in the praise of Tyre, and in 
I Kings, where it is said that Solomon's workmen came 
from Biblium. At this day the city is called Gibeth 
(Gibeleth), and is small enough. Three leagues from 
Biblium is Botros (Botrys), once a rich city, but now 
utterly destroyed. Three leagues further is the castle and 
village of Nemsyn (Nephim), standing almost on the sea- 
shore and strongly fortified. Two leagues from thence is 
Tripoli, a notable city, on the seashore. Therein dwell 
Greeks, Latins, Armenians, Maronites, and Nestorians, 
and (men of) many nations. Much work in silk is wrought 
therein. I have heard for a truth that there are therein 
twelve hundred weavers of silk and camlet. Mount Lebanon 
ends three leagues beyond Tripoli. At its foot rises the 
Fount of Gardens, the stream that runs swiftly down from 
Lebanon, and waters all the gardens and the plain round 
about Tripoli. Upon its banks many religious houses are 
built, and many Greek and Armenian churches. Indeed, 
of this fount, that which is spoken in the Book of 
Esther is true : * From a little fountain was made a great 
flood, even much water.'^ Two leagues from Tripoli is 
the Mount of Leopards, which is round to behold, and 
pretty high. At its foot, on the north side, is a cave 
wherein there is a tomb, twenty feet long, which the 
Saracens devoutly visit, saying that it is Joshua's tomb. 
This I do not believe, because the text says that he was 
buried on the side of Mount Ephraim, under square 46. 
I rather believe that this is the tomb of one of the children 
of Noah, or of someone like them, whom we can prove to 

1 Gebal in the A.V., now ' Jebeil.' i Kings v. 18, where there is a 
marginal reading ' Giblites ' instead of ' stone-squarers,' Ezek. xxvii. 9. 

2 Esther xii. 10 (Apocrypha). Compare Esther x. 6. 

3 



34 JOHN POLONERS DESCRIPTION OF 

have dwelt in these parts. Another three leagues to the 
north of that cave may be seen the castle of Arachs 
(Arachis), which Aracheus, the son of Canaan, built after 
the flood, as we learn from the gloss on Genesis and 
I Chronicles. Across the plain, eight leagues further, one 
comes to Antiaradum, or ' Before Aradus.'^ This is an 
island half a league distant from the mainland. In Anti- 
aradus St. Peter preached for a long time when he was 
on his way to Antioch, as we are told in Clement's 
Itinerary.^ Clement also found his mother there. There, 
too, St. Peter caused the first church, dedicated to St. 
Mary, to be built. Six leagues beyond Antiaradus is the 
castle of Margat, which belongs to the brethren of St. 
John's Hospital. It is well fortified, and stands on a high 
mountain, one league away from the sea, near the city of 
Valania. The bishop's palace once stood in this city, but 
because of the insults of the Saracens it has been removed 
into the castle. 

The kingdom of Jerusalem ends with the city of Valania, 
and the river of the same name which flows through it, 
and the patriarchate of Antioch begins. This place is 
eight days' journey distant from Acre, and it is four days' 
journey from it to Antioch. Antioch stands in the pro- 
vince of Coele-Syria, which begins at the river Euphrates 
and ends at the river Valania, which flows beneath the 
castle of Margat and falls into the Great Sea near the 
town of Xalania, wherein was a bishop's palace, as aforesaid. 
In this same province is Laodicea, Apamea, and other 
minor towns. Syria Phoenice is a different province ; it 
begins at the aforesaid river of Valania on the north, and 
reaches to the south as far as Petra Incisa beneath Mount 
Carmel, which place is nowadays called Pilgrims' Castle.'^ 

1 ' The island of Ruad, which lies off Tortosa.' — Diet, of Bible. 

^ Tobler knows nothing about Clement's Itinerary. ^ Fabri, ii. 354 



THE HOLY LAND. - 35 

In this Syria there are the following cities : Margat, 
Antiaradum, Tripoli, Beyrout, Sidon, Tyre, Acre, Caper- 
naum. Another province is Syria of Damascus or of 
Lebanon, whose capital city is Damascus, and Mount 
Lebanon has renown therein. But all the land from the 
river Tigris even to Egypt is called generally Syria. Now, 
the first part thereof, which lies between the rivers Euphrates 
and Tigris, reaches a long way from north to south, that 
is to say, from Mount Taurus to the Red Sea, and is called 
Syria Mesopotamia, being, as it were, in the midst of the 
waters, and contains many nations, P'arthians and Medes, 
who are bounded on the south by Chaldaea. Next one 
goes to Antioch, where all the faithful, who had before 
been called Galilaeans, were called Christians. At this day 
they are called Nazarenes by the Saracens. There was 
St. Peter's see, and therein Galen was born, who taught 
medicine to his nephew, St. Luke the Evangelist. This 
city was called Rablath up to the time of King Antiochus. 
At the beginning of Coele-Syria towards the west is the 
city of Tarsus, whence came St. Paul. 

Also, five miles to the east of the aforesaid city of Acre, 
may be seen a kind of village called St. George's.^ At 
this place we are told that St. Jerome (St. George) was 
born. South of it stands the city of Naason, whereof we 
read in Tobit. Two leagues from thence is Dothaim, at 
the foot of the Mount of Bethulia, which Holofernes would 
have taken by storm. Two leagues to the east of Naason, 
and three leagues from Dothaim, is Neptalim, the city of 
Tobit, which is built like a village. "^ Four leagues east of 
Neptalim, beside the Sea of Galilee, is Bethsaida, the city 
of Andrew and Peter. Two leagues to the south of this 

1 Sandsorti. 

^ Casale. See Ernoul, p. 58, note 4, in 'The City of Jerusalem.' 
Ducange says : Certus Casarum numerus, villa, suburbanum, Trpoatrraov. 



36 JOHN POLONERS DESCRIPTION OF 

place is the castle of Magdalon, on the Sea of Galilee, from 
which the Magdalen took her name. One league east of 
Bethsaida is the place where Christ stood on the seashore 
and said to the seven disciples, ' Children, have ye any 
meat ?' His footprints may be seen on a stone. To the 
east is Capernaum, wherein Christ worked many miracles 
(Matt. xi.). Two leagues further to the east the Jordan 
runs into the Sea of Galilee. On the upper part of its 
bank ^lay be seen Chorazin. At this place begins the 
ascent of Mount Saair (Seir). Four leagues east of 
Chorazin is Cedar, once a well - fortified city, wherefore 
it is written, ' I have dwelt with them of Cedar.'^ Four 
leagues east of Acre is Cana of Galilee, where Christ turned 
the water into wine. The place of the wedding feast is a 
cave hewn out of the rock, which holds a few men, and the 
places are shown where stood the water-pots and the seats, 
and where the tables were set. These places are under- 
ground, like very many other holy places, as that of Christ's 
annunciation and nativity. Two leagues to the south of 
Cana of Galilee is the city of Sephor (Sepphoris). Beyond 
it, towards Tiberias, above Dothaim, is Mount Bethulia as 
aforesaid. Seven leagues from Bethulia, on the Sea of 
Galilee, is Tiberias ; it was called Tiberias when Herod 
was tetrarch. At that place there are medicinal baths on 
the seashore. South of Acre, yet turned away a little to 
the east, is Nazareth, the beloved city, where the Flower 
of flowers budded from the root of Jesse. It is seven 
leagues from Acre. This is the Saviour's own city. Jesus 
was called a Nazarene because He was brought up therein. 
Here bubbles up a little fountain, from which the boy 
Jesus was wont to draw and fetch water for His mother. 
Three leagues east of Nazareth is Mount Tabor, whereon 
Christ was transfigured, and one may seek there for the 
1 So runs the Vulgate version of Psalm cxx. 4. 



THE HOLY LAND. 37 

place of the three tabernacles. In this mount there are 
hollow places and caves beneath the ruins of splendid 
buildings, wherein lurk lions and other beasts. As one 
comes down the mount there is a chapel on the west side, 
(at the place) where the Lord said, ' Tell no man what ye 
have seen.' Beyond the valley of this mount, between the 
south and the east, is the little hill of Hermon, spoken of 
in the Psalms. Four leagues from Nazareth, and one 
from Mount Tabor, is the other Mount Hermon, on whose 
north side is the city of Nain, where the Lord raised the 
widow's son from the dead. This mount reaches eastward 
for about five leagues toward the Sea of Galilee. Mount 
Gilboa and Mount Hermon stand in such sort that Hermon 
is on the north and Gilboa on the south, and between them 
a plain two leagues wide and four leagues long. In the 
days of old there were great wars and battles on this plain. 
Here Gideon overthrew the Midianites, and here Saul was 
overthrown by the Philistines, who hung his head over the 
walls of the city of Bethsan, which stands between the 
Jordan and Gilboa. 

Galilee is nearly all flat and plain country. On one 
side it adjoins the Holy Land, wherein stands Bethsaida ; 
on the other hand, Samaria is mountainous. In it is 
Sebaste, once a noble city of the kings of Israel, but now 
utterly ruined and desolate save only two churches. One 
of these is on the top of the mountain where once stood 
the royal palace ; the other is dedicated to John the 
Baptist, who was buried therein between Elisha and 
Obadiah, having been, as it is believed, brought thither 
from the town of Machaerunta, which is between Jordan 
and Sebaste. Two leagues south of Sebaste is Mount 
Bethel. One league further is Mount Dan, overhanging 
the city of Shechem on the left hand. It was upon these 
two mounts that Jeroboam set up golden calves and made 



38 JOHN POLONERS DESCRIPTION OF 

Israel to sin. Between these two mounts stands the city 
of Shechem, which is likewise called Neapolis, full of 
manifold pleasant places ; but it is not and could not be 
fortified. Should an enemy come from the north, the 
citizens, if they be the fewer, can do nought save flee to- 
ward the south. It was to Shechem that Joseph's bones 
were brought from Egypt and buried. Hard by is the 
parcel of the field ^ which Jacob gave to his son Joseph. 
Not far from the gate of the city is Jacob's well, on which 
the Lord sat and begged for water from the woman of 
Samaria, and in this place there was a church. On the 
right hand of Shechem is Mount Gerizim. Thereon may be 
seen to this day the ancient temple of Jove, and hospice for 
strangers, whereof we read in the Second Book of Macca- 
bees.2 This is the mount which we are told the woman 
meant, when she said : ' Our fathers worshipped in this 
mountain.' One league from Shechem is the city called 
Luz, wherein Abraham dwelt. In this place some say 
Jacob slept and saw the ladder, when he said : ' How 
dreadful is this place !' and called the name of the place 
Bethel, which before had been called Luz, which was, 
being interpreted, *The Lord seeth.' But some say that it 
'j* was on Mount Calvary, whereon I, John Poloner, was 
the last to see the story of the sacrifice set forth in mosaic 
work in the place where Christ was offered up. So also some 
say that the place where Jacob slept and saw the ladder 
was Mount Moriah, or the grassy mount (Abraham's mount) 
whereon Solomon afterwards built the Lord's Temple. 

The plain between the Jordan and Jericho is called 
Gilgala. Half a league from it is Mount Quarantena, 
where the Lord fasted forty days, and was tempted there 
by the devil. Others say that it was a high mountain 
nearer Galilee, two leagues from the aforesaid mount, on 

^ Gen. xxxiii. 19 ; Josh. xxiv. 32. ^ 2 Mace. vi. 2. 



THE HOLY LAND. 39 

whose top was a chapel. Here he showed Him all the 
kingdoms of the world. At the foot of this mount rises 
and runs Elisha's fountain, which he turned from bitter into 
sweet and drinkable water. One mile from Gilgal is 
Jericho, once a noble city but now brought so low that 
there is no trace left of its having been a city. Zacchaeus 
was of this place. As one goes down from Jerusalem to 
Jericho, just at the end of the mountains, before the plain 
begins, they show a place by the roadside where the blind 
man sat by the roadside begging. Here was once a church. 
On the road which leads to Jerusalem, four leagues from 
Jericho, at a village on the left hand of the Quarantena 
wilderness, is where the man fell among thieves. Three 
miles south of Jericho is St Jerome's^ monastery in a vast 
wilderness which is so scorched by the sun's rays that there is 
there no green thing. He abode there for four years. From 
Jericho it is two leagues to the Jordan, where is shown a 
chapel dedicated to St. John the Baptist. The people of 
Israel walked over Jordan dryshod. Naaman the leper was 
cleansed in Jordan. Christ was baptized in Jordan. Three 
leagues, or six Italian miles, from Jericho, two leagues south 
of St. John's chapel, is the Dead Sea. On its eastern shore 
stands Zoar in Arabia, where is the statue of salt into which 
Lot's wife was turned, which it is dangerous to go and see 
because of the Midianites who dwell there. The sea some- 
times swells so high as to cover the whole of the statue, and 
again it sinks till the statue can be seen at one time as far 
as the breast, at another as far as the knees : for the statue 
stands between Segor (Zoar) and the Dead Sea. This sea is 
six leagues wide. By the continual smoke and stench the 
whole of the valley, which once was called glorious, has 
been made so barren for a space of ten days' journey that 
it bears no grass or any growing thing ; moreover, all the 
1 Fabri, vol. ii., part i, p. 174. 



40 JOHN PO LONERS DESCRIPTION OF 

mountains to the right and to the left are barren for six 
leagues. Above this place, as thou goest down into Arabia, 
is Carnaim, a watch-tower^ of the Moabites, to which 
Balaam was brought down to curse when the ass whereon 
he rode spoke to him. This sea divides Judaea from Arabia. 
In the days of the children of Israel Ar-abia was a wilder- 
ness^ and solitary place, wherein the Lord kept them for 
forty years, raining manna upon them from heaven. Here 
it was that the pillar of fire went before them by night, and 
the cloud encompassed them by day, and here were the 
forty stations of the children of Israel (Exodus, and Num- 
bers xxxiii.). Note that Arabia joins Idumaea in the 
neighbourhood of Bostron. Idumaea^ is the land of 
Damascus. Damascus is the capital of Syria. Lebanon 
divides Idumaea from Phoenicia ; in Phoenicia is the city 
of Tyre. In Arabia is the vale of Moses, wherein he struck 
the rock and the waters gushed out. In Arabia is Mount 
Sinai, where the law was given to Moses. In Arabia is the 
mount whereon Aaron is buried. In Arabia is Mount 
Abarim, where the Lord buried Moses, whose sepulchre is 
nowhere to be seen. In Arabia is the place called Petra in 
the Wilderness, or Monreal* (2 Kings xiv. 7^). In a high 
place beyond Jordan, near the city of Rabath, belonging to 
the children of Ammon, at the end of the Holy Land, was 
the castle, to wit, Petra in the Wilderness, a strong enough 
place, which Baldwin, the first King of the Latins at Jeru- 
salem, built to defend the kingdom. 

1 Text has spelunca^ I conjecture specula. See John of Wiirzburg, 
ch. xxii. ; Theoderich, ch. ^xxv. ; Fetellus, p. 21, note. 

2 Theoderich, ch. xxxi.,yf«. ^ Fetellus, p. 22, note i. 

* Baldwin's castle of Monreal was on the site of the old city of 
Diban, in Moab, not at Petra. See Fabri, ii., p. 182 ; John of Wiirz- 
burg, ch. xxii., etc. 

^ ' He slew of Edom in the valley of salt ten thousand, and took 
Selah by war, and called the name of it Joktheel unto this day.' 
Compare Isa. xvi. i. 



THE HOLY LAND. 41 



Of the Land of Egypt. 

Egypt is a level and warm country. It seldom rains 
there, but the country is watered by the river Gihon, which 
is also called Nile. This river has seven arms, running 
through divers lands. It breeds wild horses and crocodiles 
innumerable, which are shaped like lizards, having four feet, 
thick short legs, sharp claws like a bear, and a head like a 
lizard. When they come forth from the water on to the 
land, they kill whatever men and beasts they are able. A 
lamb and a goat scarce suffices them for a single meal. 
The Nile begins to rise from the Feast of the Nativity of 
St. John the Baptist until the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, 
and then it falls until the Epiphany, when the dry land 
appears. The farmer sows his seed, and harvests it in 
March. All kinds of vegetables are gathered from the 
Feast of St. Martin to early in March, and the same with 
the fruit of orchards. Sheep and goats bear young ones 
twice in the year. 

You must know that there are three Babylons : the first 
stands upon the river Thabor (Tigris). Herein Nebu- 
chadnezzar was king. The second is in Egypt, and is that 
over which Pharaoh bore rule. These two are in ruins. 
The third, of which we are now treating, is likewise in 
Egypt. Adjoining this is the city called Cairo, wherein is 
the Soldan's own royal palace, and it is one and the same 
city with New Babylon. In this city there are five nations, 
to wit, Romans, Greeks, Jacobite Christians, Saracens, and 
Jews. There is a Jacobite church, called Our Lady of Laza,^ 
which is of wondrous beauty, and is the patriarchal church 
of the Jacobites. Therein is a pillar, from which came forth 

1 Laza is a country in Asia, near the ancient Colchis (Procopius de 
Aed., iii. 7 and v. 9). Tobler observes that by Jacobites we must here 
understand Copts to be meant. 



42 JOHN PO LONERS DESCRIPTION OF 

a voice saying : * Go, seek ye . . . this man removeth 
mountains.' There is also there a church dedicated to 
St. Barbara, where her body rests. Now, between Babylon 
and Cairo there are fifteen Christian churches, among which 
one is holier than the rest. In this there is an underground 
chapel, where is the place in which the Blessed Virgin 
dwelt with her son Jesus and Joseph, when she fled from 
the land of Israel. There is a cross made for a sign on the 
place where the Babe used to sleep. So this is hallowed 
above all the other churches, and is called the Church of 
Our Lady of Cana in Babylon. In Cairo there was an ex- 
ceeding ancient palm-tree,^ which bowed itself down to the 
Blessed Virgin that she might gather dates from it, and 
afterwards raised itself up and stood as before. We read 
that the tower of Babel measured outside, from one edge to 
the other, one thousand and twenty paces, and that the 
thickness of its wall was three hundred paces, because they 
meant to build it up to the level of the moon. 

Gaza, or Gazara, is three days' journey from Jerusalem, 
and is one of the five cities of the Philistines. Samson 
took away its gates, and carried them up to the top of a 
hill. Three days' journey from Gaza is Domata, a city of 
Egypt, where Jeremiah was stoned.^ The second Ackaron^ 
is one of the five cities of the Philistines, ten leagues from 
Ascalon toward Joppa, not far from the sea. Beersheba 
lies between the hill-country and the city of Gaza. Gath 
also was one of the five cities of the Philistines, standing 
not far from Lydda and Ramula. Out of its ruins the 
castle Jebellum has been built upon the same hill. This 
town and castle of Jebelon {sic), which of old was called 

1 Tobler, ' Descriptiones,' p. 409; 'The City of Jerusalem' (Ernoul), 
p. 49. 

- See art. 'Jeremiah ' and 'Tahpanes' in Diet, of Bible. 

^ Ekron. He calls it the second, because Acre and Ekron were 
confused by mediaeval writers. See Anon., ii., p. 5, note. • 



THE HOLY LAND. 43 



Beersheba, and the castle of Blanczgwarde,^ were built to 
withstand the insolence of the Ascalonites. King Herod, 
in whose time Christ was born, was a native of Ascalon. 
Three miles from it stands the castle of Blanczgwarde. 
On the seashore, not far from Ekron, stands Joppa, where 
St. Peter raised Tabitha from the dead. 



1 * Blanche -garde.' 



INDEX. 



Abarim, Mount, 25, 40 

Abraham, 20, 22, 28, 38 

Abraham's Mount, 3 note, 38 

Absalom, Tomb of, 11 

Acheldamach, 3, 12 

Ackaron (Ekron), 42 

Ackon, 29 

Aeon, 31 

Acre, 30, 34, 35, 36 

Adam, 22 

Adonijah, 12 

Ahab, 27 

Ai, 28 

Ainan, 26 

Ammon, 26, 40 

Anathoth, 2, 12 

Andrew, St., 26, 35 

Annas, House of, 13 

Antiaradum, 34 

Antioch, 34, 35 

Antiochus, King, 36 

Antilibanus, 29, 32 

Antipatris, 29 

Antonia, 3 

Antonius, one, 3 

Apamea, 34 

Apostles, 8, II, 13, 14, 27 

Arabia, 14, 24, 25, 26, 39, 40 

Prima, 25 

Secunda, 25, 26 

Aracheus, 33 
Arachs (Arachis), 33 
Aradus, 34 
Aram, 25 
Areopolis, 25 
Armenian Christians, 13 
Armenians, 7, 15, 33 



Armenians, Church of the, 13 

Arnon, Brook, 26 

Aroer, 25 

Arsur, 29 

Ascalon, 28, 43 

Ascension, the, 14 

Asher, 28 

Asshur, 31 

Assur, 24, 27, 30 

Assyrians, 27 

Athlit, 23 note 

Augustus, 29 

B 

Babel, Tower of, 42 
Babylon, 31 
Babylons, Three, 41 
Balaam, 26, 40 
Baldwin I., 40 
Baptist, St. John, 16 
Barak, 26 
Barbara, St., 42 
Baruth (Beyrout), 27 
Basan, 26 
Beautiful Gate, 6 
Beersheba, 24, 42,^43 
Benjamin, 23, 28 

gate of, 2, 3 

Bethany, 3, 17, 26 
Bethel, 28, 38 

Mount, 2>7 

Bethlehem, i, 18, 20,21 
Bethphage, 9 

Bethsaida,'24, 27, 35, 36, yj 
Bethsan, 23, 24 
Bethsura, i 
Bethulia, 35, 36 
Beyrout, 32, 34 
Legend at, 32 



46 



INDEX. 



Biblium, 33 

Bishop of Jerusalem, 14, 16 

Blanczgwarde (Blanchegarde), 43 

Bostoron, 25 

Bostron, 40 

Botros, 33 

Botrys, 33 

Bozra, 25 



Caesarea by the Sea, 23, 29 

Philippi, 24 

Caiaphas, House of, 12, 13 
Cairo, 19, 42 
Calvary, 4, 38 
Camela, 25 
Cana in Babylon, 42 
Cana of Galilee, 36 
Canaan, 2>?> 

Canaanitish woman, 32 
Capernaum, 4, 24, 34, 36 
Carmel, 27, 34 
Carnaim, 40 
Caspian Sea, 25 
Castle, David's, 13, 15 

of Arachs, '})'^ 

of Bethany, 16 

of Petra (Monreal), 40 

Pilgrims', 34 

Castles, two, 29, 30 

Cedar, 25, 36 

Cedes Neptalim, 24, 26 

Cedron, 2, 6, 7, 11 

Certa, 23 note 

Chabratha (Kubbet Rahil), 18 

Chaldaea, 20, 35 

Chapel near house of Caiaphas, 14 

of St. James the less, 12 

of St. John Baptist, 39 

of St. Saviour, 13 

of St. Thomas, 15 

of the Fasting, 38 

of the Virgin, 4 

Chorazin, 24, 36 

(Z\\x\'sX^ passim 

Church at Bethlehem, 19 

at Hebron, 21 

of Holy Cross, 10 

of Holy Sepulchre, 4 

■ of Lazarus, 17 

of Mount Sion, 14, 15 

of Our Lady of Cana in 

Babylon, 42 
of Our Lady of Laza; 41 



Church of St. Cross, 23 

of St. Cyprian, 18 

of St. George, 18, 29 

of St. John Baptist, 22, 30 

of St. Mark, 10 

of St. Mary, the first, 34 

of St. Mary of the Swoon, 5 

of St. Nicholas, 21 

of St. Saviour's, at Tyre, 31 

of SS. Cosmas and Damian, 

of the Armenians, 13 

of the Greeks, 18 

of the Shepherds, 21 

on the place where the shep- 
herds would have turned 
back, 21 

Churches, fifteen, between Baby- 
lon and Cairo, 42 

two at Sebaste, 37 

Clement's Itinerary, 34 

Clouds, Tower of, 2 

Coele-Syria, 34, 35 

' Cock crowing,' 12 

Coenaculum^ 15 

Colchis, 41 

Cornelius, 29 

Corner, Gate of the, 2, 3 

Cosmas, St., Church of, 19 

Covered streets {Malquzsmai)^ 13 

Crocodiles, 29, 41 

Cyprian, St., Church of, 18 

Cyrene, Simon of, 5 



D 



Damascenes, 6, 27 
Damascus, 24, 35, 40 

the field of, at Hebron, 22 

Damian, St., Church of, 19 
Dan, 24 

Mount, 37 

Daniel, 31 
David, II, 28 
David's Castle, 13, 15 

Gate, I, 2, 

Tomb, 14, 15 

Deacons, 14 

Dead Sea, 14, 21, 23, 39 

Decapolis, 24, 26 

Deuteronomy, 26 

Diospolis, I 

Divisions of the Holy Land, 23 

Domata, 42 



INDEX, 



47 



Dothaim, 35, 36 
Dung Gate, the, 2 



Effrem, 26 

Egypt, I, 20, 21, 25, 35, 38, 41, 
42 E 

St. Mary of, 16 .j,^ "1 

Ekron, 43 

Elah, 28 

Eleemosynary, St. John the, 29 

Elias, 18 

Elijah, 20, 32 

Elisha, 30, 37 - 

Elisha's Fountain, 39 

Emmaus, 16 

Endor, 28 

England, King of, 29 

Ephraim, Gate of, 2 

Mount, 2 

Ephrata, 18 

Esau, 28 

Esdraelon, 23 

Esther, 33 

Ethiopia, i ^ 

Euphrates, 35 

Eustochium, 21 

Eve, 22 

Evil Counsel, House of, 18 

Ezekiel, 8, 33 



Fetters, St. Peter of the, 13 
Field of Damascus, 22 

of Peas, 18 

Fish Gate, i 
Flocks, Gate of, 2, 6, 8 
Flowers, Garden of, 8 
Fountain, Elisha's, 39 

ofB. V. M., 22 

of P h i ale, 25 

where the B. V. M. rested, 

22 
France, King of. 29 
Fulk, King of Jerusalem, 281 



Gabbatha, 5 
Galen, 35 
Galileans, 35 
Galilee, 24, yj, 38 



Galilee, Mount of, 9 

Sea of, 28, 35, 36 

Gamala, 5 

Garden of Flowers, 8 
Garwin (Ain Karin), 18 
Gate, Beautiful, 6 

David, I 

Dung, 2 

Fish, I 

Golden, 3 

of Benjamin, 2, 3 

of Ephraim, 2 

of Judgment, i 

of the Corner, 2, 3 

of the Flock, 2, 6, 8 

of the Street ot the Jews, 12 

the Old, I 

Valley, 2 

^^ Water, 3 

Gath, 42 
Gaza, 23, 42 
Gazara, 42 
Gebal, 33 
Gehennon, 10, 12 
Gelin (Ginaea), 23 
George, St., 18, 27, 28, 29 
George's, St., village, 35 
Georgians, 4, 7, 16, 23 
German mile, 16, 20, 24 

pilgrims, 32 

Germany, 23 

, Pilgrims from, 30 

Gethsemane, 8 
Gibeth, 33 
Gideon, 27, 37 
Gihon, 41 
Gilboa, 23, 27, yj 
Gilgal, 39 
Gilgala, 38 
Golden Gate, 3 
Goliath, 28 

Grass, Mount of, 3, 38 
Great Sea, 34 
Greek months, 30, 33 
Greeks, 47 

H 

Habbakuk, 31 
Hammam, 25 
Hananeel, Tower of, 2 
Haraon, 30 

Hebron, i, 18, 21, 22, 26 
Hermits, 12 



48 



INDEX. 



Hermoniim, 27 
Herod, 22 

House of, 6 

King, 43 

of Ascalon, 29 

• the Great, 3 

the Tetrarch, 36 

Heshbon, 26 

Holofernes, 35 

Holy Cross, Church of the, 10 

Sepulchre, Church of the, 4 

Hospitallers, 34 
House, Joachim's, 6 

of Annas, 13 

of Caiaphas, 12, 13 

of Evil Counsel, 18 

of Herod, 6 

of Martha, 17 

of Mary Magdalen, 17 

of Rich Man, 4 

of St. George, 28 

of St. Zacharius, 16 

of Simeon, 18 

Hunting at Lake Merom, 27 
Huz, Land of, 25 
Hyrcania, 25 

I 

Ibelim, 28 
Idumaea, 40 
Indians, 4, 7 
Innocents, the Holy, 19 
Isaac, 22 

Isaiah, 11, 20, 25, 35 
Israel, 27, 31 

Twelve tribes of, 23 

Issachar, 26 
Italian miles, 24 

J 

Jabbok, brook, 26 

Jacob, 18, 20, 22, 38 

Jacob's Well, 30, 38 

Jacobite Church of Our Lady of 

Laza, 41 
Jacobites, 47 
James, St., 11, 15, 27 

the Less, 10, 14 

Chapel of, 12 

Jebei), 33 

Jebelon, Jebellum, 42 
Jebusites, i 
Jehoshaphat, 3, 7, 10 



Jeremiah, 42 
Jericho, 2, 17.38, 39 
Jeroboam, 37 
Jerome, 20, 39 
Jerusalem, passim 
Joachim's house, 6 
Joash, 2 

John, St., 4, 10, II, 15, 25, 27 
John the Baptist, St., 16, 22, 26, 
27 

Chapel of St., 39 

— — the Eleemosynary, St., 29 

Jonapata (Jotapata), 24, 28 

Jonas, 29 

Joppa, I, 29, 42, 43 

Jordan, 3, 9, 14, 23, 26, 27, 36-39 

Joseph, 20 

Joseph's bones, 30, 38 

Joseph, St., 42 

Josephus, 28, 29 

Joshua, 27, 28 

Joshua's tomb, 33 

Judaea, 23, 40 

Judah, 23 

Judas Iscariot, 10 

Judgment, Gate of, i 

Hall of Pilate, 4 

K 

Kadesh Barnea, 23 
Kedar, 25 

Kedesh Naphtali, 26 
King Antiochus, 35 

Herod, 43 

K I aft em, 1 1 

Knights of the Temple, 30 

Krach, 25 



Lake Merom, 26, 27 
Laodicea, 34 
Latins, 33 
Laza, 41 
Lazarus, 4 

Tomb of, 1 7 

Leah, 22 

Lebanon, Mount, 24, 27, 33, 35 

Legend at Beyrout, 32 

Leper, Simon the, 17 

Lombardus, 23 

Lord's Temple, 6 

Lorraine, 23 



INDEX. 



49 



Lot, 20 
Lot's wife, 49 
Luke, 35 
Luz, 38 
Lydda, 29, 42 



M 



Machaerunta, 30, y] 

Magdalen, St. Mary, 4, 6, 16, 17, 

35 

Magdalen, 35 

Magi, 19 

Maginas, 24 

Mambre, 28 

Map, Poloner's account of his, 23 

Margat, Castle of, 34 

Maries, The three, 16 

Mark, St., Church of, 10 

Maronites, '^'^ 

Martha, 17 

Mary Magdalen, St., see Mag- 
dalen 

Mary, St., First Church of, 34 

Mary, St., of Egypt, 16 

Matthew, St., 26, 28 

Matthias, St., 14 

Medes, 35 

Merom, 27 

Mesopotamia, 25 

Michmash, 24 

Midian, 27 

Midianiies, 37, 39 

Millicent, Queen, 7 

Minorites, 7 

Moab, 26 

Moabites, 40 

Moloch, 10 

Monastery, St. Jerome's, 39 

Monreal, 40 

Moriah, Mount, 3, 38 

Moses, Valley of, 40 

Mount Abarim, 25, 40 

Abraham's, 3, 38 

Bethel, 37 

Carmel, 34 

Dan, ^1 

Gilboa, 23, 27 

Hermon, 37 

Lebanon, 24, 33 

Moriah, 3, 38 

of Galilee, 9 

of Leopards, 33 

of Offence, 10, 12 



Mount of Olives, 8, 10, 11, 14 

Sanir, 25 

Seir, 25, 36 

Sinai, 40 

Sion, 3, 14 

Sion, church on, 15 

Tabor, 36, '},'] 

Taurus, 35 

where Aaron was buried, 40 

N 

Naaman, 39 

Naason, 35 

Nain, 37 

Napalosa, 30 

Naphtali, 28 

Nativity, Church of, 19 

Nazarenes, 35, 36 

Nazareth, 36, yj 

Neapolis, Nablus, 37 

Nebuchadnezzar, 41 

Needle, Eye of a, 13 

Nemsyn (Nephim), '^'^ 

Neptalim, 35 

Nestorians, 33 

New Babylon, 41 \ 

Nicholas, St., 21 

Nile, 41 

Noah, 33 

Nolitejlere, 5 

O 

Obadiah, 30, 37 

Offence, Mount of, 10, 12 

Og, King of Basan, 26 

Old Gate, i 

Olives, Mount of, 8, 10, 11, 14 

Origen, 31 



Palestine, 23, 24, 29 

Palm Sunday, 8 

Palm tree that bowed, 42 

Parthians, 35 

Paschal lamb, 14 

Passover, 17 

Paul, St., 35 

Paula, St., 21 

Pavement, 5 

Pelagia, St., 9 

Pentecost, Day of, 15 



50 



INDEX. 



Peter, St., 8, 12, 27, 29, 34, 35, 43 

Petra, 14, 25, 40 

Incisa, 23, 34 

Pharan, 25 

Pharaoh, 40 

Pharaoh's daughter, 1 1 

Phiale, the fountain, 25 

Philip, II, 23 

Philistim, 23 

Philistines, 27, 28, 29, 42 

five cities of the, 31 

Phoenicia, 29 

Pilate, House of, 4, 5 

Judgment Hall of, 4 

Pilgrimage from Bethlehem to the 
Valley of Hebron, 21 

Pilgrimage from Jerusalem to 
Bethlehem, 18 

Pilgrimage from the City of Jeru- 
salem to the East, to Bethanv, 
16 

Pilgrimage through Hebron to 
Jerusalem, 22 

Pilgrimage throughout Jerusalem, 

4 
Pilgrims' Castle, 34 
Pilgrims, German, 30, 32 
Pirach, 25 
Place where Christ preached at 

Tyre, 31 
Prison, 4, 13 
Procopius, 41 
Prophets, Twelve, 21 
Ptolemais, 29 



Quarantana, 2, 38, 39 
()ueen Millicent, 7 
of Sheba, 7 



R 

Rabath, 40 
Rablath, 35 
Rachel, 20 
Rachel's Tomb, 18 
Ramatha, 12 
Ramoth Gilead, 26 
Ramula, 42 
Rebecca, 22 
Red Sea, 25, 35 



Refuge, Cities of, 26 

Rephaim, i 

Rich Man's House, the, 4 

Rogel, 3 

Rogeli, 12 

Rome, 20, 29 



Saint Andrew, 26, 35 

Barbara, 42 

Cross, 23 

Cyprian, 18 

George, 27, 28 

George, Church of, 18 

George, Village of, 35 

James, 11, 15, 27 

James the less, 10, 14 

James the less. Chapel of, 12 

Jerome, 21,39 ; his study, 20; 

his monastery, 39 

John, 4, 10, II, 15, 25, 27 

John the Baptist, 16, 22, 26, 

27 
John the Baptist, Chapel of, 

39 

John the Eleemosynary, 29 

Joseph, 42 

Luke, 35 

Mark, Church of, 10 

Mary of Egypt, 16 

Mary of the Swoon, 5 

Matthew, 26, 28 

Matthias, 14 

Nicholas, 21 

Paul, 35 

Pelagia, 9 

Peter, 8, 12, 27, 29, 34, 35, 

43 

Peter of the Fetters, 13 

Philip, 23 

Saviour's Chapel, 13 

Stephen, 14 

Stephen's Gate, 2 

Thomas's Eve, 27, 32 

Zacharias, 16, 23 

Saints Cosmas and Damian, 19 
Salt, Pillar of, 39 
Samaria, 4, 23, 30, 37 
Samson, 42 
Sanin, 26 
Sanir, Mount, 25 



INDEX. 



51 



Saracens, 6, 9, 27, 28, 30, 33, 34, 

35,41 
Sarah, 22 
Sarepta, 30, 32 
Saul, 23, 27 
Saviour, St., 13 
Saxony, 23 
School of B. V. M., 5 
Scythopolis, 23 
Sea, Caspian, 2$ 

Dead, 39 

of Galilee, 24-26, 28, 35, 36 

Red, 25,35 

Sebaste, 23, 26, 30 

Segor (Zoar), 39 

Seir, 25 ; (Saar). 36 

Sephet, 24 

Sephor (Sepphoris), 36 

Sepulchreof B. V. M., 12 

the Lord's, 2 

Serpent, Legend of, 20 
Seven deacons, 14 
Sharon, 27, 29 
Sheba, Queen of, 7 
Shechem, 30, 37, 38 
Sheep pool, 2 
Shepherds, 21 
Sidon, 24, 27, 29, 32, 34 
Sihon, 26 

Siloam, 3, 6, 10, 11, 12 
Simeon's house, 18 
Simon of Cyrene, 5 

the Leper, 17 

the Pharisee, 6 

Sinai, Mount, 40 

Sion, 3, 30 ; meaning of name, 14 

Siran, 28 

Sochim, 30 

Socoh of Judah, 28 

Soldan, a, 19, 20 

the, 25, 29, 41 

Solomon, 7, 10, 11, 38 
Solomon's Song, 25 • 

Temple, 6 

Tomb, 14, 15 

Sorec, 26 

Star of Bethlehem, 18 

Stephen, 14 

Stephen's Gate, 2 

Street of the Synagogue of the 

Jews, 13 
Sugar canes, 30 
Swoon, St. Mary of the, 5 



Syria, 35, 40 

Code, 34, 35 

Mesopotamia, 35 

Phoenice, 34 



Tabitha, 29, 43 
Tabor, Mount, 37 
Tarsus, 35 
Tartars, 27 
Taurus, Mount, 35 
Temple, the, 3, 6, 10, 12, 38 

Knights of the, 30 

Thabor (Tigris), 41 
Thomas, St., 8 
Tiberias, 24, 36 
Tigris, 35 
Tobit, 35 
Tophet, 12 
Tower of Babel, 42 

David, I, 2 

Hananeel, 2, 3 

Trachonitis, 25 

Transfiguration, 13, 36 

Tripoli, 33, 34 

Tuscany, 23 

Twelve Prophets, Sepulchre of 

the, 21 
Tyre, 30, 31, ^z, 34 



Valania, city and river, 34 
Valley Gate, 2 
Valley of Elah, 28 

of Gehennon or Tophet, 12 

of Gloria in Excelsis, 21 

of Hebron, 21 

of Jehoshaphat, 7, 11 

of Moses, 40 

of Rephaim, i 

of Sanin, 26 

of Siloam, 6, 10, 11 

of the Children of Ennon, 3 

on the road from Jericho to 

Jerusalem, 17 
where many battles have 

been fought, 27 
which is called Bethphage, 

9 
Virgin, the Blessed, 5, 8-10, 20, 21 



52 



INDEX. 



Virgin, Chapel of the, 4 

School of the, 5 

Sepulchre of the, 7 



W 



Water Gate, 3 



' Ye daughters of Jerusalem,' 5 

Z 
Zacchaeus, 39 
Zacharias, St., 23 

House of, 16 

Zoar, 39 
Zoheleth, 12 



BILLING AND SONS, PRINTERS, GUILDFORD. 



3411 



^Bbsm